In qualitative studies, they are used to investigate and gain understanding concerning an underlying opinion, motivation, or reason. Primarily, qualitative research offers insights on a problem and assists in develop hypotheses or ideas. In most case, the qualitative studies provide detailed and in-depth analysis by encouraging people to respond to a particular question and does not consider numerical data. In the qualitative data, it has to be descriptively measuring the phenomenon at hand. This paper will evaluate a qualitative exploration study on learning and teaching with mobile technology by Montrieux, Vanderlinde, Schellens, and De Marez (2015).
Introduction and Literature Review Evaluation
As this article by Montrieux, Vanderlinde, Schellens, and De Marez (2015), is a qualitative explorative study about teaching and learning with mobile technology, the researchers present an adequate rationale for conducting the survey. With the changing trends both in teaching and learning, technology is playing a vital role by influencing both the teachers and learners. Numerous institutions based on different curriculum are integrating education with technology such as tablets in teaching and learning; however, the effect of the development is unclear. As such, this offers an adequate rationale for the study.
Further, the study is significant since it provides a proper examination of the impact of mobile technology in teaching and learning by investigating the perceptions of students' and teachers' on using a tablet device in the classroom. Through the study, it is likely to make a difference in the education field since it will provide information on how teachers and students understanding can be facilitated to the maximum potential. Also, this study will ensure a learning-centred approach since the teachers have changed their teaching style to adopt the new technology requirements. Correspondingly, Montrieux et al. (2015) provide a comprehensive and thorough literature review as they investigate the influence of learning and teaching practices. For instance, the literature review offers reliable articles that help in differentiating the application of technology in teaching and learning. Besides measuring the teachers' perspectives, the literature review provides more information on the various ICT-tools that can be applied in teaching and learning.
However, the researchers demonstrate a potential bias in the literature review, whereby they acknowledge that there is relatively minimal scholarly research concerning the application of tablet devices in student teaching and learning. Within the bias, it offers a limitation concerning the investigation about the influence of integrating technology in the classroom. Another bias in the literature review is that no reliable information is yet provided about the overall perception of tablet devices in a classroom setup. Through the background and literature review, Montrieux et al. (2015), clearly define all the significant concepts in the study. For example, Montrieux et al. (2015) start by outlining the transformation to a technology-enhanced learning approach. Throughout the literature review, reliable information, theories, and concept are described to increase understanding and investigate the research question. Furthermore, there is a clear definition of the previous methods concerned to understand the study's purpose by the researchers as they consider all concept in qualitative research.
Purpose Statement Evaluation
Detailed in the article's title, Montrieux et al. (2015) provide a clear purpose statement as they investigate first-hand perceptions of both the students and teachers about the implementation and impact of using tablet devices. As expressed in the article, the purpose statement involves qualitative explorative research on the introduction of tablet devices in secondary education (Montrieux et al., 2015). Correspondingly, the purpose statement is based on three major questions. First, the study investigates how the teachers and learners experience the duty of the teacher following the integration of tablet in the classroom. Second, the researchers evaluate the perceptions of both students and teachers on the technological learning change and later provide the impressions on the conditions supporting the teaching and learning practices (Montrieux et al., 2015). With a proper evaluation of the literature review, the purpose statement is clearly based on the arguments as they draw on some of the extraordinary opportunities offered by different authors. Also, the purpose statement leans towards investigating the changing teaching and learning practices which are widely discussed in the literature review.
In consideration of the method of qualitative research, the study used a case study. It is because the study focuses on a specific secondary school in Flanders that has integrated tablet devices in the classroom works and the entire school setting. Through the case study, the research evaluated information retrieved from focus group to acquire reliable information. The school is a significant case study since it is considering a pioneer concerning the research as the school decided to implement the use of tablet devices across all grades and classrooms. Moreover, the research design is consistent with the purpose statement offered in the introduction, particularly with the use of a focus group. The focus group aligns with the purpose as allows the participants in the study to present their impressions and discuss the technology-based learning practice. Reliance on the focus group maintains consistency between the research design and the purpose statement of the study. So far, in the procedures applied in the study (Montrieux et al., 2015) do not introduce any bias.
Based on the research design in a focus group, the random sampling method was used. Random sampling is appropriate since Montrieux et al. (2015) only required information from several students and students. In the study, six focus group interviews were crated with randomly selected participants that included 20 teachers and 40 students. The relevant demographic characteristics of the sample are identified as Montrieux et al. (2015) provide that the study focused on gender (20 boys and 20 girls), age (between 11-14 and 15-18). From the study, only two of the twenty teachers did not participate while 19 girls and 20 boys of the 40 invited in the study participated in the interviews. Based on the population used in the study, it is outright to say that the methods of sample selection offer a good representative sample since it examined both the teachers and students fit to provide their perceptions. The focus group interviews provide a proper investigation of the research question. However, there are biases in the selection of the sample since the study only focused on secondary education. As a result, this limited the research sample to students between the age of 11-18. On the other hand, this sample size of 60 individuals is not large enough for the proposed study since it cannot be used to represent an entire school. A single school cannot offer an overall investigation of the research objective.
Additionally, a semi-structured interview taking 90 minutes was used to collect data in the investigation of the participants' perceptions after using the tablet devices for six months. In the data collection, there is an adequate description of the interview protocol. Specifically, the explorative questions were categorized as the introduction, questions on teaching techniques, questions about the learning techniques, and final questions covering the perceptions. Further, the interview was based on the three research questions outlined in the introduction of the study. In the interviews, the researchers acted as moderators taking a neutral role whereby the Socrative software, was used as a student response system. The participants had the opportunity to respond to questions and also vote. In detail, all the focus group interviews were videotaped while the conversations were transcribed to provide a record for the gathered data. However, some of the limitations that could be in the data collection method include limited sample size, manual entry of interview data, and the cost since this is a face-to-face interview. Also, the quality of data by the interviewer might be biased, which is likely to render bias in the data collection method.
In the analysis of qualitative data, the transcribed conversations were uploaded in "NVivo," software, a computer analysis software package analyzing qualitative data. Every participant received a personal code that was coded in the NVivo coding system. The analysis method is clearly described as the study uses a two-step procedure. Through this method, the first phase of data analysis included a vertical analysis which consisted of all the data coded from each of the focus groups. In the second phase of results analysis, the results of the vertical study for each focus group was delivered to a cross-site analysis or horizontal analysis where the six focus group interviews were systematically compared to investigate the differences and similarities. In the study, the answers delivered in the Socrative software were triangulated along with the focus group interview data to ensure proper explanation of the study result and ensure trustworthiness. Within the description of the results, they were categorized based on the three research questions derived in the introduction of the study.
In each of the research question, there are substantial examples provided on the data presented in the survey. Within the given examples of data under each research question, they cover the learning practices, instrumental teachers, among other critical information relevant to the study. In different ways, the given examples of data provide a clear connection with the themes identified in the literature review of the study. Also, the models connect to the outlined concepts which are essential in investigating the research objective of the study. Across the given analysis of the research and results, the examples are adequate since they are included in the three research questions. Also, the results give specific opinions given by the teachers and learners on the use of tablet devices in teaching and learning.
In the discussion of the study, Montrieux et al. (2015) restate the aim of the research and the research questions. Montrieux et al. (2015) begin the discussion by also outlining that the use of technology innovations education-specific study not only offers details on tablet devices but includes the relationship between crucial stakeholders on the use of tablets in education. Besides the reinstatement of the objectives of the study, Montrieux et al. (2015) provide a short description method of data collection and analysis used in the research and points out that the perceptions of both the students and teachers after using the tablet device are essential to understand teaching and learning with mobile technology.
Within the discussion, Montrieux et al. (2015) discuss the implications of the findings as they relate to other results. First, Montrieux et al. (2015) provide an analysis of the first research question to draw the indication that the teachers using tablet devices help in the learning and teaching practices. Through the description of the implications of the study, the findings corroborate with different concepts as they confirm that tablet devices include learning activities not possible in the past. More so, the implications of the results confirm the significance of collecting students' perception on the use of tablet devices. By providing...
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