The Syrian war has now run over decades regardless of various conflict resolution measure employed which has become a disturbing problem to world peace. On a daily basis, we read newspaper headlines about the military rivalry and clashes in this country. In addition to that, we also learned about refugees, severe bombing and victims from this country. However, a few numbers of people understand the reason behind this different situation in Syria. In this paper, we are going to cover the reasons behind the conflict state in Syria, the obstacles to its peaceful resolution and the appropriate conflict resolution mechanism.
Foremost, the conflict in Syria started because of political repression environment in the country. The family of president Bashar-al Saad has been ruling for the past 45years which have transformed the country to a monarch state. The father of Bashar al -Saad assumed office in 1970, and since then the country has not undergone any political reforms. The current regime came to power in 2000, and since then it has not done anything for a democratic state.
Discredited ideology has also given birth to the current conflict situation in Syria. The Syria Baath party has been closely linked with the Arab socialism movement. This ideology connects the country's economy to pan-Arab nationalism (Humud, Blanchard, & Nikitin, 2018). Nevertheless, the famous Baath ideology was reduced down to an empty shell in 2000 associated with crippled, struggling economy and lost wars to Israel. At times when President Bashar al-Saad assumed office, he tried to introduce the Chinese economic model, but numerous factor crippled down his ideology. Diverse cultures and regional context made the Chinese economic model not applicable in the Syrian states. Such factors made Syria remain with their existing economic model which subjected to struggling and collapsing the economy.
Moreover, corruption and the rough economy have led to numerous crisis within Syrian state. The government is not concerned about the living conditions and standards of its citizens. President Bashar Al -Saad and his government focused on how to corrupt the public resources and earn more wealth as individuals. This makes the economy state be built uncommonly. After the decline of socialism model in the country, several big companies were grabbed by close partners to President Bashar al-Saad. The rural areas of the state did not get help to build their business yet the population for those areas is very poor. Corruption has also been a net worth in this conflict. In Syria, for a citizen to open up a business, it's said that he/she has to bribe the right people in government. This disparity in the economy of the country has furthered resentment with the citizens which has made it be against the ruling regime.
The drought was among the primary reasons for the crippled economy and therefore it subjected to the uprising. The prevailing drought has affected the lives of the family depending on farming in northeastern Syria affecting numerous people since 2008(Lesch, 2013). This led to flocking to urban slums to run their lives in the struggling economy. Due to lack of support from the government in these struggling moments increased the feeling of resentment and lost hope of government which fueled hostility to the ruling regime.
Just like any other country with a growing economy, Syria faces situations of overpopulation and unemployment. Every year more than a million people begin to hunt jobs to get income to meet their needs. However, the country's struggling economy cannot meet the demand of its rising population and offer new workplaces. When people don't get income generating activity, they get angry and dissatisfied with life and hence raise resentment. The crisis of joblessness within the people of this country led to people feeling powerlessness and subjected to hostility for the President Bashar Al -Saad regime. Ultimately, the increased unemployment rate becomes the contributing factor to the uprising.
Nevertheless, we cannot underestimate the role played by mass media in the military conflict in Syria. The access to the internet through various technology devices has led to people have an imaginary picture of the good life and governance from people of the outside world and compare it to the pathetic low standard life in Syria. Besides that, President Bashar al -Saad refuses to conduct economic and political reforms for the benefit of its citizens and growth of the country's economy. He wanted to keep himself full of control of every situation which raised a context of unpromising and weak government (Mariwala, 2014). The exposure brought by social media made people gain modernity and transformation ideas. In addition to that, the use of social media made activist connect people to rising and uprising against the regime.
The Syria vast intelligent services, the unpopular Mukabharat diffused within all corners of the country. The fear of the state violence is among the primary reasons why the citizens of Syria take the country as a way of life. However the outrage of brutal society by the military personnel against peaceful protest in spring 2011, document and penetrated all spheres of the society. This led to the rise of powerful feeling which caused the mass following to standout against the government and prevents such reoccurrence. The more the mass killing of peaceful protesters the more people came out to fight out the ruling regime of President Bashar al-Saad.
The religious majority of Syria is Sunni Muslims, but the governing positions of the security team are led by Alawites, a Shiite religious group which is in President Bashar Al-Saad lineage. A fundamental part of the Sunnis still believes much power is being held by a few people. This creates a feeling of the dictatorship of the majority by the minority. Regardless of the sectarian differences, the combination of majority Sunni protest and the Alawi military has resulted in an atmosphere of untold fear and misery in religiously mixed areas such as Homs. This led to sparkling set up to the uprising.
The atmosphere of fear would it have broken in Syria, at this critical time had it been for Mohamed Bouazizi. The Tunisian vendor whose self-immolation at the end of the year 2010 sparked momentum for uprising between the anti-government across the Middle East. Following the rise and fall of strong empires like Tunisia and Egypt back in 2011 made the Syrian citizens through constant rebellion and protested they can liberate themselves from such exploitative regime of President Bashar Al -Saad.
The international community also played a very critical role in causing a crisis in Syria. Since Middle East countries like Syria are rich in oil production, it attracted concern and invasion from other great nations. The great countries were keen on getting the Syrian oil resources due to some factors and regulations involved. This awakened the interest of Syria by other world countries. In addition to that, the fact that Syria was the neighbour to Israel, Syria conducts a very fundamental role to Russia and China by ensuring the western influence is in vigilant check since the United States of America is an intermediate influenced neighbour.
Moreover, the international relation is fundamental for any country to survive this modern competitive world. Syria has been an isolated country due to its political instability that's why it has been facing numerous crises over the decade. Different countries have various perspectives in the international relation which they conclude through diverse paradigms. The cause of Syria uprising can be view according to realist view and constructivist view. Through my point of view and theoretical frameworks of international relations, the Syrian war can be understood in a relevant manner and peace abiding mechanism be adopted to solve the conflict.
According to realism theory, it is understood that people own interest is the driving force between international relations. About the Syria situation, people cause an uprising because the government deprives them the freedom to pursue their interest. This protest of citizens to liberate themselves from President Bashar al-Saad governance depicts that they want what realist perceive as human nature and uprising support the idea by the assumption of realist people that conflict is solved by another conflict or civil war. Besides that, according to realist theory, it's highlighted that interest defines the co-relation between countries and this is evident in the environment of Syria. The Russian selfish interest in exporting firearms as well as Russian -Chinese focus on diluting the capacity of the influence of other superpowers in the region has not brought them together but depicts their hidden support to the President Al-saad ruthless regime. This comes out as one of the stabling blocks in the measures tried to bring out peace to the people of Syria.
In the social theory constructivist school of thought, it is focused on the social model of reality. Constructivist view believes that human relations, international relations are composed of ideas not necessary because of material conditions or forces. In Syria context, the social constructivism shed light on the Syrian crisis as it elucidates that social organisation model of the country has a history which impacts the society negatively. The society of Syria has been under strict colony which denied them freedom and aftermath the regime which took power after independence made the country undergoes same tight control. Dictatorship has prevailed in Syria and democracy has been undermined even after the fight for freedom from the colonial government so that the citizens feel liberated. The freedom of mass media has been weakened. Due to this people have always fought for power to stop the current dictatorship. This current circumstances have made the efforts to restore peace be rendered futile.
Despite the current conflict in Syria, there is still conflict resolution which can be adopted to give birth to a peaceful Syria. Foremost, if the anti-terror campaign is launched in Syria under the United Nations flag, it will depict legitimacy and provide an advantage to a peaceful resolution. In this situation, the organisation will not be able to intrude their national interest rather it will be I forefront to fight terrorism.
Moreover, Russia and the United States of America will need to sign an extended lasting ceasefire agreement. This is because the Russian has backed the Syrian army while the Americans have supported the rebels. This ceasefire agreement would bring an atmosphere of relief to the Syrian civilians who have been facing continuous bombing since the start of the war. Any arsenal of weapons in Syria should be demolished. This because the Syrian rebels use chemical weapons against the civilians (Berzins, 2013). To prevent this united nations have to investigate and report where the chemical weapon is located for the world powers to demolish them. Through this, it will enhance the peacekeeping mechanism in the Syrian state.
In addition to that, the fighters should develop a more ground force than air bombing. At present, the Syrian army seems to be only force concerned with fighting the ISIS. This is the reason why they can take back the old city of Aleppo. If the troops are strengthened the ISIS would be defeated, and peace will prevail in Syria (Rocha, Julio, & Machry, 2016). In a situation where the Syria crises have been resolved, the free and fair election should be held without external influences under careful supervision by the United Nations. This will show the exercise of democracy which the people of Syria has been fighting for.
Sectarian conflict should be resolved with urgency. Among the primary reasons for the i...
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