Exercise 1: The Scientific Method
In this exercise, you will answer the questions based on what you have seen in the videos throughout the lab. Be sure to pay careful attention to the videos - you will not only need them to complete this exercise successfully, but also to have a firm understanding of the scientific method for future labs.
Make an observation - Write down any observations you have made regarding the effect of pollution on the environment.
Answer = Pollution alters our environment in a negative way such as to intoxicating the air, causing high levels of water in the sea, interfering with the healthy growth of plants and the natural way the wild animals live.
Do background research - Utilizing the scholarly source (provided here), describe how pollution might affect yeast.
Answer = Pollution alters the respiration process of yeast hence its ability to produce energy.
Construct a hypothesis - Based on your research from question 2, develop an if-then Hypothesis relating to the effect of pollution on yeast respiration.
Answer = With the addition of a pollutant to yeast then the energy levels produced by yeast will decrease.
Test with an experiment - Identify the dependent variable, independent variable, and the controlled variables for the experiment.
Answer = dependent variable is carbon dioxide produced, an independent variable is a pollutant, and the controlled variable is yeast.
Analyze results-Record your observations of the three test tubes before incubation and compare them to the observations provided in the video.
Test Tube Initial Appearance
Yeast with No Pollutant Milky colour, no bubbles
Yeast with Salt Water Milky colour, no bubbles
Yeast with Detergent Yellow in colour, soapy, thicker consistency
Analyze results-Record your observations of the three test tubes after incubation.
Test Tube Final Appearance
Yeast with No Pollutant Clear colour, with air bubbles
Yeast with Salt Water Milky colour, few bubbles
Yeast with Detergent Yellow in colour, no bubbles
Analyze results -
The table below shows sample data regarding the amount of carbon dioxide produced by each tube. Determine what type of graph would be the most appropriate for displaying the data and explain why you chose that graph. Then, make a graph. Use Microsoft Excel or a free graphing program (for example, https://nces.ed.gov/nceskids/createagraph/) to create the graph. Submit this with your post-lab questions.
Sample Amount CO2 Produced (mL) After 1 Hour
Yeast with No Pollutant 7 mL
Yeast with Salt Water 0.5 mL
Yeast with Detergent 0 mL
Draw conclusions - Interpret the data from the graph in Question 7. What conclusions can you make based on this graph?
Answer = There is a higher rate of respiration in less concentration of pollutant as compared to when there is a higher concentration of the contaminant.
Draw conclusions - Based on your observations and your graph, would you reject or accept the hypothesis you made in Question 3? Why?
Answer = Based on the observations and the graph, I would accept the hypothesis I made because the results of the experiment confirm it.
Draw conclusions -
Imagine you are an environmental scientist employed by a city. Some residents have expressed concerns regarding how salt is applied to roadways in the winter because of the harm it may cause aquatic life in area streams. Propose an experiment using yeast to determine if salt pollution runoff is a potential concern in your community.
Answer =the experiment will have two variables one is clean water and the second will be the water collected from the area stream. One puts an equal amount of yeast in the two samples, and then the mixture would be left to incubate for at least an hour.
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