The American health care system is tax-based and this facilitates among providers the working condition that enables equality and free choice in health care as it covers the whole population. As the nation is responsible in medical policies and overall health of the people, states, counties, and municipalities have the freedom to organize the manner in which they would provide health care services. With special attention to child development, the health care system is very cautious in the manner in which disease prevention is covered and due to this, collaboration with psychology has played a major role in understanding psychological or mental conditions that children and adolescents encounter in heir lives.
In psychology, growth has been closely related to the relationship that exists between an individual and her surrounding from the time of her birth to her death. Through research, these relationships have been proved to have great importance in shaping the way an individual relates to people around her. In the life of children and adolescents, the overall relationship to the things surrounding them majorly depends on the kind of attachment, learning, norms, and self control that she is exposed to as she grows up. Therefore, it is very important to make the necessary considerations that will facilitate upright upbringing of children and adolescents.
The part of the brain that is known to have control in the way an individual relates to her stimulations, memories, as well as emotions is the limbic system. The limbic system is located inside the cerebrum as well as over the brainstem and makes the necessary connections between the lower and upper parts of the brain enabling functionality. Research findings have revealed that there is a very important link between an individuals personality and the functions related to the prefrontal cortex. Because of this, this part of the brain is known to help an individual make decisions, planning her behavioural patterns, moderate her social behaviour, as well as self-expression.
Children have two distinct categories in which they fall under, the dandelion or the orchid kids. According to research, hardness and even-temper is associated with dandelion kids whereas orchid kids vary in traits. This variance in trait causes orchid kids to lack a stable form of development since they can easy fall in the mix of right and wrong settings. In order for a child to perform well in class activities, it has been found out that they have to have self-control of their behaviour.
What would be the case in the life of Diane and America at large if functionality within the limbic system did not allow her to transition from one stage to the next from Erikson's theory of child development?
Research studies, in the past, have been majorly associated with the challenge of paying a lot of concentration on the significant adaptations for human evolution. Because of this, it has been easy for researchers to pay more attention on the school age and adolescents stages rather than all stages of human upbringing. This forms one of the foundational reasons that Erik Erikson developed his psychological developmental stages. Nonetheless, going by the understanding afforded by Santrock (2013), the reader ought to understand that Diane's development ought not to be centralized by the two aforementioned stages rather than all stages. Because of this, there is every reason why psychological development patterns must not be built from certain periods of Diane's life rather on the adjustments that have been done on every stage to develop the appropriate patterns (Santrock, 2013).
Several trends on life span development have been established over the years on how Diane's experiences growth from childhood to adulthood. Hence, it is from these trends that varied laws have been established concerning childhood and the discipline that separates one developmental period from the next (Santrock, 2013). It is from these laws and discipline that Erikson went further ahead to develop psychological development theory that illustrates the changes that takes place while growing up. Nonetheless, his was far reached because according to him, the theory went beyond the childhood and adolescent boundary to encompass of all stages of humanity.
While Erikson's formulation of his theory acquired a basic strength from Freud, his theory has been qualified as not being farther from that of Piaget. This is because in all the eight stages of his theory, emphasis is being placed on the behavioural patterns that address the concerns of Diane's growth (Erikson, 1964). From the eight stages developed by Erikson in his theory, the following understanding is provided of Dicksons development. First, from every birth, Diane comes out into this world fighting between trust and mistrust. This conflict brings out those triggers that make it possible for Diane to withdraw or gain hope on who she finds self associated with (Erikson, 1964). Thus, with the lack of functionality in the limbic system, Diane would not be able to understand the importance of deciding between trust and mistrust. Next, the conflict on defining autonomy over shame comes into play and from this stage, Diane would not be capable of doing those body functions that aids her on walking, feeding self, etc,. When she further grows, she would not be able to encounter the next stage, that of fighting guilt over initiative. This third stage enables the child to turn away from those human crisis that are caused by varied reasons, some of them, as accorded by Zheng et al (2016) being genetic and environmental challenges as well as cross-cultural differences facing Diane from varied backgrounds as shown by Dean (2001). Nonetheless, as Erikson shows, it is from this stage that Diane would have bee able to develop understanding enabling her to associate more with her parents than with any other person in her life (Santrock, 2013).
In the fourth stage, Diane would be more than able to understand the differences that exists in the tool world, distinguishes varied tools, and understands how to use them. While this is taking place in Dianes developmental stage, she is, within self, fighting the industry verses inferiority conflict (Erikson, 1964). Here, due to lack of functionality, she would not be able to develop the ability to be competent in what she does and this plays a major role in her later life. Here, as shown by Santrock (2013), it becomes undeniable that an understanding of the manner in which a child is able to process information, and eventually learn, comes in play would not be evident in Diane. Through this understanding, Diane will not be able to process, in her mind, how several tools play certain roles in their lives and by so doing, it is able to be determined how the child is able to learn (Santrock, 2013).
From gene inheritance, research findings have been able to show that anxiety and depression is on the rise in the late childhood while environmental influences increase at about the same period (Zheng et al, 2016). According to Erikson, this time comes during the fifth stage that allows a child to encounter several changes in both physical and mental understanding of her being. When inappropriateness comes in play, it becomes hard for the adolescent Diane to define who she is and this often leads into the said anxiety and depression shown by Zheng et al. Many at times, this comes into play majorly due to lack of foreclosure that varied cultures have on the aspect of sexuality (Dean, 2013). All this details would be found to be missing in the life of Diane and that of the American public due to lack of functionality in the limbic system. As such, as shown by Erikson, while others battle role confusion over identity (Erikson 1964), others, due to societal norms in their respective areas, are unable to confront certain changes that comes with adolescence hence the anxiety and depression (Dean, 2013) but to the American populace, this would not be the case.
The latter stage envelops into conflict of intimacy over isolation where Diane, now heading into adulthood would be expected to decide is she is to be loved or will surrender into being isolated. In this stage, Erikson strongly believed that for intimacy to be attained, the parties involved must have been able to separate themselves from confusion (Santrock, 2013). This understanding, while it might have sounded so in the mind of Erikson, encounters several challenges from variations in background that people from varied cultural settings come from. The same understanding forms the reason that initiates Weerasekera (1993) into formulating a multiperspective model that allows for incorporating all approaches into developing a positive solution to the challenges faced by people from varied cultural backgrounds. This understanding has become the causality that calls for the development of a comprehensive psychiatric a long many mental professionals to accommodate varied perspectives that play a major role in the formulation of healing developmental conditions (Weerasekera, 1993). With the understanding of the case study, none of the above would be realized as Diane and the others would not encounter distinctive cultures that would demand for the elaborated confusion.
From the seventh stage of development, Diane would be faced with the conflict of generativity versus stagnation. Here, several reasons contribute to this conflict as Malti et al (2010) show that it all narrows down to social-cognitive traditions that Diane would have been made to face. This would have been majorly determined by the society that the same individual would have risen from and due to the lack of cultural differences, what might be considered appropriate in China is what would have been considered the same in other western countries (Dean, 2013). As such, when conducting a holistic assessment of the developmental prevention program, there would be no need for critical understanding of the concern of diversity in culture to develop that program which caters for all societal settings. From the later stage, integrity verses despair, Diane is later in her life supposed to understand, looking back how she was able to live her life (Erikson, 1964). This would not have been dependent on the decisions made in the yester years that would have made it possible to determine satisfaction or lack of satisfaction in the life of the adult as she awaits her demise.
Assessment of Child Development Theories in a Functional Limbic System
Erikson is able to present an understanding of the demands that each stage presents to Diane and to a greater effort, presents the challenges in each as they determine the next stage (Erikson, 1964). As such, the theory makes a profound explanation, and to some extent the causalities, of choices made, in each stage as an individual transitions from birth to old age. From this, any psychological student as well as professional is better equipped with the knowledge that goes a long way into helping them understand what is required when handling the associates.
In addition to Eriksons theory, several others can be used to bring out an understanding of the way children develops from birth to adolescence. Piagets cognitive developmental theory is also essential in helping understand what actually takes place in the mind of Diane as she grows into adulthood (Santrock, 2013). The importance that majorly correlates to Piaget is that from his theory, a lot of attention is afforded the mind of Diane and it is from it where understanding comes of the manner in which she is able to adapt to several structures within her environment as she grows up. As Diane grows and so...
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