This paper presents a means of developing new measurement on subjective well-being. Subjective well-being of an individual is frequently related to the financial status of an individual but more often it includes a broader elementary view that indicate how an individual views certain conditions. This research stipulates how an explanatory research used different variables which will help determine a useful well-being index. Measurement of well-being assesses concepts such as the psychological well-being, positive Feelings ,Negative feelings and also a balance of the two. (ed Diener Derick wirtz ,Robert Biswas-Diener ,William Tov .New measures of well-being. The measurement of well-being is central to public interest and policies. The measures are generally used for the purpose of measuring progress ,informing policy design and also for policy appraisal.(Paul Dolan ,Richard Layard and Robert Metcalfe ,March 2011 Measuring subjective well being for public policy recommendation on measures. )
There are different types of well being in which subjective well-being implicates the mental state well-being .
Research indicates that it is possible collect meanigfull information and reliable data on subjective well-being. Subjective well-being encompasses different aspects; cognitive well-being of ones life ,satisfaction ,positive emotions such as pride and negative emotions such as pain and worrying. (Paul Dolan ,2011)
The subjective well-being of an individual is used as an indicator of how participants in a given industry are doing.Robisn Jp , shaver have envisaged that to demonstrate there are required changes in a certain group or show that a program made a difference researchers and specialist must conduct an outcome evaluation . Subjective well-being captures the level of happiness that individual portray in their daily lives which gives out a way in which it can be measured . it concentrates on different demographics such as gender ,age ,institutional factors ,environmental factors and also economic factors . all this can help I determining the psychosocial issues.(Van Horn a short introduction to well-being .2 april 2007)This research uses the social factors to determine the well-being of individuals. Diener and Griffins marks out that it is formidable to point out that the judgment of how satisfied people are with their current state of affairs is based on comparison with a standard which each individual sets for him or herself. (journal article on satisfaction with life scale 1985 ) the research is envisaged as a subjective well-being area that centers on the persons judgment ,not upon some criterion which is judged to be important by the researcher. For instance health energy may be desirable ,particular individuals can place different values on them .it is for that reason that there is a need to ask a person for their overall evaluation of their life ,rather than summing across their satisfaction with specific domains. (Bradburn ,1969 ; kamann and Flett,1983)
the first step toward developing the new measurement was to determine the items which would be used on the construct under examination .A deductive scale development was used which uses a theoretical definition which items are then generated. (Schwab,1980) the items developed were all to address a single issue which was satisfaction with life. Harisson reports that it is important to keep all items consistent in terms of perspective in order to make sure that one does not mix items that assess effective response without comes of behavior (Harison Mclaughlin,1991)
Number of items
According to Thurstone, There are no rules towards the number of items that one should develop towards assessment of data though a measure needs to be consistent and parsimonious, with a minimum number of items assessing the domain item.
Content adequacy assessment
In the process of scale development there is need to prevent wastage of substantial time and effort in the collection of large data only to find that an important measure has flawed. It helps in the support of construct validity .one of the best method that I used was categorizing items based on their similarity to construct definitions.
Items retained from adequacy assessment were then presented to participants with an objective of determining how those items would confirm my expectation. a total of 170 participants were included in the study based on the proper and subjective assessments
An online research conducted using the Qualtrics software that provided a wider platform for placing the research questions. the software provided an intuitive and an easier to use interface that features many practical tools such as continuous file saving and exporting of raw data in various formats
Robison stipulates that researchers need not to go as far as factor-analyze their data to select items to be included or discarded, but a item an item inter correlation matrix can be a simple and convenient surrogate for determining which items to include ,particularly when using most of statistical packages. a total of 160 participants were included in the study based on the proper and subjective assessments .The researcher sought to determine the mean age and the participants that were roughly determined by the sample rate of subjective procedure. Measures of subjective well-being are self reports as such many factors which entail understanding questions, processing information ,capacity of memory and reporting biases are always put in play.
The researcher also conducted a pilot that was designed to enhance validity and the reliability of the data. The pilot questionnaire consisted of a totality of 9 of the 24 questions were investigated. The pilot study involved designing, producing and improving for the internal and reliable measures. Most of the accomplishments revolved around positively worded items, which were related to the agreeing to disagreeing sequence. The coded data ensures the consistence and positively wording of information. The recorded item was organized 5, 2 to 2,5, 4,4 and 1 and 3 for the neutral points. The transformation of high scores for the negatively for becoming low scores and low individual data being used. The SPSS was used to explore the wording procedure, which involved determining the quality of questionnaire being completed, and succeed.
From the pilot data, it was clear that the number of items were 24 while the actual response was of 22 questions. The average Cronbach's alpha for the 22 items registered was .927. The mean was 73.46 while the variance was 258.603 while the Std. Deviation stood at 16.081 and the No of item stood at 22.
The first question involved investigating whether participants were happy with their lives. The questions attracted a scale variance of 224. The scale mean was 69.77. The total corrected item was 872, while the cronbach alpha item was .918. The second questionnaire investigated whether the participant has lived the life as he wanted. This question attracted a scale variance if item was deleted of 237. The scale mean values stood at 70.54 on the other hand, the cronbach alpha item was .922 while the corrected item was .689. The third question explored the sense of accomplishment. In this question, the scale mean if item deleted stood at 70.08 while the corrected item total correlation stands at 772. The crobach alpha of item deleted stands at 920. The fourth question focuses on the struggle to development new relationships. In these questions, the scale means if item deleted stood at 69.92, while the scale variance 234 relationship.
The firth question examined whether the enjoy participating in physical activity. The scale mean if deleted had 70.85 while the scale variance if item deleted registered at 246. The six questions examined whether the individual felt anxious. In this case, the scale mean if item deleted stood at 70.85 on the other hand the scale variance if item deleted 245.641. The seven-question questioned the participant whether he or she regularly felt tired or sluggish. The question registered a scale mean 70.85 while the scale variance if item deleted 237.423. On the other hand, the Cronbach alpha item if deleted stood at .926. The eight question examined the participant mental health. This question attracted a scale mean of item deleted while it demonstrated a scale variance if deleted 225. The fourth questions examined whether participants have a well-balanced diet. In this question, the scale mean if deleted stood at .69.54 while the scale variance if item deleted .241.603. The tenth questions explored whether the participants is pleased, happy or satisfied with the specific achievements related in this life. In this question, the scale mean if item deleted stood 69.92 while the scale variance if item deleted stood 231.910, on the other hand the Cronbach Alpha item deleted registered a .92 magnitude.
The 12 question focused whether it was rare to afford luxuries. In this question, the scale mean of item deleted registered a 70.92 while the scale variance if item deleted stood at .243.577 while the Cronbach alpha item .925. For the tenth question questioned whether there was always the idea of a future that we had both wanted. In this question, the scale mean if item deleted registered at 69.62 while the scale variance if item deleted stood at .233. The corrected item total correlation stood at .673 while the Cronbach's Alpha if item deleted stood at .922. The fifteenth questions 'r' questioned whether the participants cried a lot. In this question, the scale mean if item deleted 69.77 while the scale variance if item deleted stood at 230.692. The cronbach's Alpha if item deleted stood at .921. The 16th r questioned whether the one could live above or truly afford. In this question, a scale mean if item deleted stood at 70.15 while scale variance if item deleted 241.141. On the other hand, the Cronbach Alpha if item deleted stood .927 while the corrected item-total correlation of 409.
The 17th questions explored whether the participants had good family relationships. The mean if item deleted stood at 69.92 while the corrected item total correlation stood at .290 while the scale variance if item deleted for .247. The questions questioned participants whether they lacked future goals. In these questions, a scale mean if item deleted stood at 70.08 while the scale variance if item deleted 220.410, while Cranach alpha if item deleted stood at .919. The 19r explored whether the items of the life cycle movements could be done better. Under this question, there was 70.69 scale mean if the item was deleted, while the variance if item deleted stood at 223.71 while the Cronbach alpha if item deleted stood at .919. The 20th question focused whether it was difficult in becoming attached to others. The question generated a mean scale of 69.92 with a corresponding scale variance of 240.577 with a Cronbach's Alpha stood at .924. The 21st question focused whether an individual was an optimistic person. In this question focused on a scale mean of 69.92 while the scale variance it item delted was 230.256 while the corresponding Cronbach's alpha if item stood at .918. The 22nd question focused whether the individual was satisfied with available savings. In this question, the scale mean if item deleted stood 70.46 while the scale variance if item deleted stood at 253.103 while the Cronbach Alpha if item deleted .934. Lastly, corrected item-total correction 0.78. The 23rd question focused on the sense of life in a meaningful way. In this question, a scale mean if item deleted stood at 70.08 while the scale variance if item deleted stood 226.910 while the cronbach alpha item deleted stood at .918. The last question examined the quality of relationship was sufficient with each other. In this question, scale mean if item was deleted stood at 70.15 while the scale variance if the item was deleted stood at 252.808 while the cronbach alpha item stood at .931.
According to the registered results, it is clear that psychology is all about family, relationship career and health work. All participants exhibited almost similar results based on the situation that binds them. The results of the specific studies related to the quality of the employee relationships, autonomy, and work nature and job security while providing a striking balance of the work environment, social and psychological environment that relate the specific work environment. Much in particular, the physical health, work stress and depressive working environment. The work to family interference and career prospects focuses more motivation, interpersonal communication and career satisfaction. Either way, work, social life and health play an important role in the lives of the participants (Oades et al., 2016, p. 496)
4.1 Identified Crossover
Cooper et al. (2009) further backs the research findings by exploring the crossover effects that strain the employees to get involved in specific working conditions. The work by Cooper explains the position of married women, primarily exploring how their marriage status affects their relationships. It is clear based on the findings and our primary research job stress and family stresses that involved in controlling family stresses. Arnold (2015) further analyze possible withdrawal behaviors that characterize the lateness and absence at work. Arnold research further relates to the above primary research, which analyzes the composition based on the time and point as well as the family process that surrounds possible important outcomes which relates to the outcomes. Also, out findings prove that family constrain lead to the possible depressive conditions that bring about the stresses surrounding performance of an individual in relation to the family and possible stress-related conditions and resources.
4.2 Cultural Impact
Results have also analyzed the cultural impact in how an individual health, work and relationship relate. This research by Wang et al., (2006, p. 312) provided results showing the possible different performances of students from the various composite groups for instance color which relates to the composite groups of students and the possible study variables. In this case, the self-efficacy is a result properly mediated relationship as well as the quality of conversation that exists between the choice of commitment to work or education based on the racial perception. Although the debate on color cannot be nullified, it is clear that there are possible cultural factors that lead to a diverse situation health, work and relationships.
In addition, it is clear from our research that individuals seeks to excel by capitalizing on optimism; this is further witnessed in their career background. Marloes and Mandy van der Velde (2014, p. 175) examine the need for career and capital competencies for the career success and career pursuits which relates to pursuing possible motivation to knowledge while gaining the right skills of science and technology. Such an encouragement relates to the different career pursuits that surround motivation of women in particular. It is therefore clear that motivation based on the quality of work does influence the quality of social life that an individual faces. In addition, from our findings it is clear that the family ties do have a substantial impact on the psychological wellbeing of an individual. The higher education dimension and the career background relates to the class as well as motivation that relates to the science and technology that led to the encouraging women to pursue possible international careers (Marloes et al. 2014).
4.4 Mental Stability
The stability of an individual mental health depends predominantly on how he or she relates with the environment. Results from Rollins and Valdez (2006, p. 176) explain that several participants received some sought of the self-efficacy results as well as the possible career decision making for career development. The ethnic identity relates to the quality of decision-making process as well as the socioeconomic status for higher levels of career self-efficacy. Lee et al. (2013) explores the work...
If you are the original author of this essay and no longer wish to have it published on the ProEssays website, please click below to request its removal:
- Stereotype Formation and Endorsement: The Role of Implicit Theories: Article Analysis
- Article Review on Family Nurse Practitioners
- The Book Review: How to Train Your Dragon by Cressida Cowell
- Death of the Wehrmacht by Robert M. Citino
- How to Make a Successful Presentation
- Research Paper Sample on Organic Photovoltaic Devices - a Renewable Energy Source
- Predator-Prey Relationships
- Jan van Eyck's The Madonna of Chancellor Rolin History
- Essay Example: Social Factors of Canada Fishing
- Should NCAA Athletes Get Paid as Employees? Research Paper Example
- Essay Example on Playing Chess
- Midsummer Night's Dream, Character of Bottom