Social psychology theories offer an opportunity to indulge in some the best work that has been done by a man to help understand and explain human behavior. In this paper, we take a look at two theories that have revolutionized social psychology studies. First, we will take a look at the research on intergroup relations a method developed by a Turkish born psychologist Muzafer Sherif. These were exciting times in the United States; right after the Second World War and as the cold war was at its onset. Mr. Sherif then decides to conduct experiments with boys attending summer camps in location all over the country. As I was looking through the study to write this paper, I was fascinated most by observation in Sherif's robber's cave experiment. In the second stage of the investigation whereby groups engaged in competitions that would result in a winner and a looser, it occurred to stereotypes and segregation of the out-group. Note that these kids were strictly picked to match in all characteristics possible and it is fascinating how they turned on each other for their groups. (Smith, Haslam 2012).
Secondly, we revisit the famous Latane and Darley's bystander studies. Inspired by the murder of Kitty Genovese who was apparently killed in her neighborhood while 38 of her neighbors witnessed and none of them stepped in to assist or at the very least call the cops. In what is regarded as the classic experiments of social physiology embarked on a journey to seek an explanation for what had become a shock to the psychology world. Darley and Latane were curious the reason why a bystander showed lack of reaction towards the victims need for help. What I found most interesting are the results of the seizure experiment. According to the investigation, the likelihood of getting help when in a problem diminishes with increase of bystanders. The results also indicated that it was not only less likelihood of being helped the speed of response were higher in comparison to when no bystanders around. (Smith, Haslam 2012)
In The next chapter where we revisited the Tajfel's minimal group studies, we find that on the issue of social identity it is entirely possible that he built upon this study by the Sherif's insights. The theory of social identity discussed in chapter 10 has relied upon the importance of broader social context such as the relations between groups in shaping communal life. Sherif has emphasized the vitality of group identification when looking study the group behavior in particular stereotyping and prejudice work that Tajfel and many others have used to form the primary argument. On the other hand, we can relate the bystander theory with many other social psychology theories. One new approach to the study of bystander intervention is basing it on the self-categorization theory (Turner, Hogg, Oakes, Reacher, & Wetherill, 1987). By relating these two studies, a new approach can be developed. According to a paper on Wiley online two experiments that interfere with the social category inter-relation between the bystander and the fellow bystanders and the bystander and the victim. This analysis indicate that it is more likely that a reaction from bystanders if in the group compared to those outgroups. This analysis offers an insight that suggests how critical self-realization perspective is when developing moves for bystander intervention promotion. (Explorable 2009).
The intergroup relations theory has had a decent impact on the society by it the bystanders' effects that come to mind when you thick social Psychology and the society as a whole. Since its publishing, hundreds of researchers have been conducted to validate this study. These studies have had some implications in the society. First and foremost, we can conclude that it is the human behavior to follow what we see. It is therefore entirely possible that that the news about the bystander effect will cause a different reaction in case of an emergency. Society has lost individuals to the bystander effect. The impact of the bystander effect is evident in newspapers. Many people do not help others in needy situations hence many more have been critically injured, physically left handicapped or mentally damaged. Another implication of the bystander effect is the formation of a morally corrupt society. Humans lack the emotions to help. This chain reaction is facilitated by the by the society we live in today. We have read the news of people dying or being hurt because of this effect. (Success Story 2018)
However big the role these two Classic studies played in social psychology and the society as a whole there are several critical areas that I found in the chapter. One common criticism of the boy's camp studies is that for him and his colleagues, hypothesis came considerably late the process of research (Mook 2004). It is a phenomenon that shows that rather than testing their hypothesis Sherif and his fellow researchers were more interested in seeking to devise experiments that would verify the theory. According to research, this approach will result in high external validity. The method, however, is not well suited for innovation of new insights in regards to the investigation. Also as much as this study has been praised for how innovative and for its methodological rigor by other researchers. However, the implementation of this process as well laid out as it was presented some challenges. A good example was that of 1953 when the boys discovered that they were being manipulated by the camp authorities which led to the closure of the camp and the termination of the study. Also in the significant part of Robbers case study, two of the influential boys contracted illnesses and were sent home. These two occasions had consequences in the research. First, the rattler group which saw the boys as more tough increased and the experimenters felt there was a need to rig the eventual result of the competition due to the sick boys from the Eagle camp due to the fears of disorganization they felt were developing. (Smith, Haslam 2012).
On the other hand, in the bystander theory, it is possible that individuals think that other bystanders are more qualified to assist in some situations. For instance, in a medical emergency, one would think that it would be more appropriate if the doctor present helped. In the bystander's line of thought, the victim would be safe in a doctor's arms in comparison to him. Also one can argue that the bystander study did not consider fears involved with perception. This reason could also explain the results. It is possible that when helping another helper can outrank you or even worse the victim can reject help when it is offered to them. Also, there is the fear of legal consequences of providing inferior or detrimental assistance. Some people who are self-conscious do not want to portray a negative image to the bystanders. For them to avoid this occurrence, these individuals instead do not respond to the emergency.
Explorable.com (Jul 15, 2009). Bystander Apathy Experiment. Retrieved Apr 19, 2018, from Explorable.com: https://explorable.com/bystander-apathy-experiment.
Mook, D. G. (2004). Classic experiments in psychology. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Smith, J. R., & Haslam, S. A. (2012). Social psychology: Revisiting the classic studies. Los Angeles: SAGE.
successstory.com (2018) Implications of Bystander Effect on the Society. Retrieved Apr 19, 2018, from; https://successstory.com/inspiration/implications-of-bystander-effect-on-the-society
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