It focuses on the relationship and interactions between learners and individuals with more knowledge and experience than them. Psychologists believe that students can learn more than expected so long as they receive appropriate guidance and resources (Liu & Mathews 2005 p.388). A child's thinking is highly influenced by his or her relationship with those more capable, knowledgeable and experienced than learners. The theory focuses on how experts contribute to the student's way of thinking and do not give a chance to the learners to prove their worth solely.
The Behaviorists and Neo-Behaviorists theory
Behaviorism emphasizes that environmental factors influence one's behavior as it overlooks the contribution of natural factors toward change in behavior (Learning theories Behaviorism, Cognitive and Constructivist (n.d)). It defines learning as the acquisition of new behaviorist provides clear predictions whereby they can be tested scientifically then support with evidence. It ignores mediational processes.
It concentrates on how mental processes of an organism affect its behavior. In cognitive learning theory, it is believed that students process information internally (Learning theories Behaviorism, Cognitive and Constructivist (n.d).). This approach employs highly controlled and rigorous study techniques that enable learners to infer cognitive processes in class(Liu & Mathews 2005, p. 390). It pays more attention to what is in the learner's mind than the student's observable behaviors.
Principles of learning
Principles of learning are found to be very applicable the learning process. Psychologists identified three important principles, tested and even used in practical situations. Readiness portrays the degree of the student's concentration and eagerness to learn. in exercise, it has been proved that things can be best remembered when often repeated. Students do learn and retain information longer when engaged in meaningful practice and repetition. According to psychologists, the mind is incapable of retaining, evaluating and applying new concept after a single exposure. Therefore, meaningful exercise is healthy and helpful for students to remember all that they have learnt. Effect is another principle of learning based on emotional reaction of the learner. Student's learning is strengthened with satisfying or pleasant feeling and weakened by unpleasant feeling. Learners get motivated and continue to do what provide them with a pleasant effect. Regardless of the learning situation, it should entail elements affecting students positively that give them satisfaction.
Models of learning
Teacher-centered model of education
In the teacher-centered model, the learner only receives information from the teacher, and it emphasizes majorly on knowledge acquisition as the instructor remains the primary information given as well as the evaluator (Agrahari 2016, p.133). It does not create room for student's personal growth since it is a single source of information. This approach makes the students less productive since they have no say over the information they get from the teachers (Agrahari 2016, p.133). The model focuses on the right answers, and the desired learning is usually assessed through the scored tests.
Learner-centered model of learning
This is an instructional approach whereby the learners influence the entire learning process. This approach places students at the center of process whereby the instructors provide the students with the chance to learn independently or from one another and directs them on how to go about it (Agrahari 2016, p.133). If properly implemented, this model can motivate students to learn, retain knowledge at greater level, deeper understanding and cultivate positive attitudes towards the subjects. Most teachers find the approach hard to implement since it is an intensive process that needs a lot of considerations and knowledge (Agrahari 2016, p.133).
Applications of theories, principles and models of learning
In the Social constructivist perspective, development of knowledge come as a result of social interaction and language use making it a shared and not individual experience (Liu & Mathew, 2005, p.388). In the current society, this practice has been implemented into the teaching system whereby the teachers allow students to interact with each other's as they share their views regarding the issues of discussion. Teachers have moved from being "people who teach" to facilitators of learning (Liu & Mathews, 2005 p. 388). Instructors offer the students the chance to frame their questions, make theories and then test their viability with the guidance of an expert.
In behaviorism theory, learning is based on the behavior change observed from the students. Teachers consider the learner's reaction toward a stimulus within the environment as a learning process. They tend to arrange the consequences that reinforce the desired behavior to follow it (Liu & Mathews, 2005 p. 387). For instance, instructors usually encourage the students to study for a test to get a good grade in return. Currently, teachers use this theory to reward or punish a student depending on the behavior.
Cognitive theory is a successful method that enables learners to explore, witness and process information hence solve the problems and gains skills (Liu & Mathews, 2005 p. 393). Following cognitivists perspectives, teachers should create environments that promote learning and also take time to understand every student. Students belong to different developmental levels hence learn differently. Teachers that manage their students properly with well-established expectations can easily incorporate diverse teaching philosophies thus creating an excellent learning environment for the learners.
In the principle of effect, teachers usually engage the students in hands-on or inquiry-based activities and then rewards the best student intrinsically hence motivates them. They offer an intrinsic reward like praises or recognition that motivates the students positively. For example, a teacher poses a question in class for the students and the first one to answer is praised like "very good girl/boy." Such rewards make the students love the subject and motivates them to always work hard for such praises and recognition in class.
The principle of readiness concerns with the willingness of the student to learn. When a student is not developmentally to learn, neither punishments nor rewards will make him or her ready. Due to that, teachers allow students to learn at their own pace.
Teacher-Centered Model of Learning
In this model, teachers are the central authority figure as students are viewed as empty vessels that receive knowledge passively from their instructors with the aim of getting positive results through testing and assessments (Marshall, Thomas & Robinson 2017, p.153). This model usually used in middle schools and high schools where students are there to listen to the teachers. Teachers usually employ instructional methods that promote a focus on teachers like lectures, demonstrations, and guided discussions. Teachers also use intrinsic motivation to influence the behavior of the learners. For example, completion of a task is seen as a qualification for obtaining something desirable like praise of free time.
Learner-Centered Model of Learning
Actively engaged students usually learn better than those students who passively listen to lectures. This model promotes the active participation of students in class whereby the teacher only acts as a facilitator (Marshall, Thomas & Robinson 2017, p.148). This practice is common in institutions of higher learning where students are given the platform to share their views, agree and disagree with each other and come out with the best solution.
Agrahari, R., 2016. The nature of educational reform and change: From teacher-centered to student-centered learning. Educational Quest: An International Journal of Education and Applied Social Sciences, 7(2), p.133.
Marshall, J., Thomas, K. and Robinson, S., 2017. 21st-Century Students in 20th Century Classrooms: Promoting Student-Centred Learning in Mismatched Caribbean Classrooms. In Student-Driven Learning Strategies for the 21st Century Classroom (pp. 140-159). IGI Global.
Liu, C.H. and Matthews, R., 2005. Vygotsky's Philosophy: Constructivism and Its Criticisms
Examined. International education journal, 6(3), pp.386-399.
Learning theories Behaviorism, Cognitive and Constructivist (n.d)
Cite this page
Social Constructivism Paper Example. (2022, Aug 23). Retrieved from https://proessays.net/essays/social-constructivism-paper-example
If you are the original author of this essay and no longer wish to have it published on the ProEssays website, please click below to request its removal:
- Theoretical and Conceptual Frameworks in Understanding Disparities in Health Care
- The Relationship Between Unemployment, Physical Health, and Mental Health
- Family Nursing Interventions for Health Promotion - Essay Sample
- Cyber-Attack on Singapore Health Database Paper Example
- Essay Sample on Work Ethic Related to Nursing
- How to Improve Democracy in America - Research Paper
- Liberalism & Realism: A Comparison of Political Philosophies - Essay Sample