Smart building technologies, which are otherwise referred to as building automation technologies incorporate software solutions and computer sensing capabilities that enhance capacity for facility management that leaders in management and building construction are using to control as well as optimize the heating, ventilation and air conditioning of buildings. According to Denchai, (2015) an increase in greenhouse gas emission and energy consumption, as well as the need for customization of product designs to meet the specific needs of users, has necessitated the creation of mechanisms to attain energy efficiency as well as environmental sustainability in the building and construction sector.
The smart building concept incorporates the provision of software solutions that normally increase the number of options for facility management that many leaders in the industry are adopting to better optimize and control the heating, ventilation, and airconditioning of building systems together with other mechanical safety systems, security, water, and lighting. According to Lu et al., (2019) such solutions are essential in the reduction of general consumption of energy and efficiency improvement. A significant portion of the energy consumption of the world of dedication towards the regulation of building temperatures. The primary goal for the installation of HVACR systems is to create thermal conform as well as the acceptable indoor quality of air.
HVACR Characteristics and Procedures
Installation of HVACR Systems
The proper installation of a high-velocity HVACR system entails understanding its primary essential functions. Basically, the system comprises a small duct of high-velocity airflow that facilitates the heating and cooling of the environment within living spaces. It is normally designed to fit in structures that have architectural limitations or constraints and space constraints. Many building construction and renovation engineers choose such systems because they do not have to design a unique structure to contain the components of the cooling and heating system (Liu & Lin, 2016). The high-velocity system of air conditioning regulates the air through a 2-inch tubing that is flexible and pre-insulated. The tubing is normally fitted through all the wall structures and also around obstacles. The fixtures manage to provide a quiet system of comfort by the use of materials of sound attenuation that normally regenerate the noise and absorb airborne sound. HVAC is an essential component that ought to be installed in residential and commercial establishments in the city of Florida for the elderly population which continues to expand according to future population projections.
Operation of HVACR Systems
The principle that controls the design of the HVACR system incorporates the basic theory of the operation of systems as well as the factors that determine the capacity and the size of the installed equipment in the system. Lu et al., (2019) posits that once the basics of the formation of the system are in place then the information that regards the different forms of air conditioning ensues. The preliminary step entails the consideration of the various components that form the HVAC system. For instance, the air conditioning component of the system requires a refrigerant to cool the air within the building. Therefore, various refrigerants that can be found within the systems of air conditioning are fully discussed.
When preparing to install a new HVACR system or when repairing an old system in a building, one of the most essential first steps is to correctly calculate the amount of heat load or energy that the system will handle. Air conditions are just but some of the options available for the removal of heat from a building (Denchai, 2015). A heat pump performs the same functions as an air conditioner but has some significant differences in the mode of working. Some of the possible mechanisms for air conditioning include direct expansion, chilled water, as well as window air conditioning (Lu et al., 2019). The three main components that make up the air conditioning system are the ventilation, heating and air conditioning systems.
A basic air conditioner works by the collaboration of 6 basic components which include a thermostat, furnace, an evaporator coil, condensing units, vents and lines of refrigeration. The thermostat is the most obvious portion of the system and one that average users and installers get to interact with the most. It is usually installed on an easily accessible wall and the user can manually set it to attain the desired room temperature for the home. Whenever the ambient temperature either gets too hot or too cold the thermostat works by triggering the system to start working either to cool down or heat up the room. On the other hand, the furnace forms the largest component of the HVACR system taking up the majority of the space in the entire set up. It is designed to heat the air confined in it and then distribute it to other parts of the room. The evaporation coil normally cools down the air whenever the thermostat is set to a lower temperature.
Maintenance of HVACR systems
Once the HVACR system has been installed in a commercial or a residential building the management must purpose to set aside funds for the maintenance of the system lest it breaks down. According to Yana et al., (2019) the primary reason for maintaining the HVACR system is to keep it up and running without any surprise breakdowns at any period. Whenever the system operates on a daily basis, it is easy for the management to forget about maintenance and this is the time such systems break down. Moreover, proper maintenance of the system ensures lower energy bills, fewer repairs, fewer chances of breakdowns as well as safer equipment operation and longer life for the system.
Some of the tasks for maintenance include keeping supply and return registers unblocked by drapes, trimming back foliage from the outdoor unit, removing debris from the outdoor unit, changing the air filters every month (Gagarin et al., 2016). Personal maintenance of the property has its advantages and disadvantages as well and these include checking the thermostat, tightening the electrical connections, lubricating all the moving parts, inspecting the condensate drains and checking systems controls. Additionally, it entails inspection of gas pressure, burner pressure, and heat exchange mechanisms.
The Concept of Commissioning a Building
According to Harrisa et al., (2019) although the practice of verifying new constructions remains new in the real estate industry, it is quickly becoming common practice for business owners to commission their buildings with the hope of getting the best out of their investment. Commissioning of buildings, therefore, entails the verification of new construction projects depending on the scope of the business establishment. Normally the commissioning authority is always involved with the building construction project from the time of the initiation to the completion and until one year after the commissioning process is completed. Building management systems are normally inspected as part of the commissioning process to ensure that they comply with the universal standards of environmental conservation and safety.
Evaluation Procedures Used in HVACR
Most establishments require that the outside air is heated then cooled for the ultimate provision of favorable thermal comfort for the occupants of the buildings. Therefore there are universal standards that ought to be followed with regards to the proper installation of the HVACR system. The selection of the specific equipment used for the purposes of ventilation is complex and all commercial and residential buildings require solutions specifically tailored for them. Heat pumps and unit ventilators have the special advantage of low surface area in terms of the floor space used. Moreover, they circulate the air around the rooms. However the maintenance of multiple units can prove to be problematic and present opportunities for moisture through the penetrations on the walls and this can cause major challenges in the long run. New buildings must adhere to the national consensus standard for outside air ventilation which sets the standards for the right properties for new and existing projects.
HVACR and Energy Management
Energy Saving Benefits of Commissioning a Building
According to Mohamed, (2019) many benefits accrue from the commissioning of buildings beginning with the thorough documentation of systems and design concepts, as well as operating sequences and test procedures. Commissioning of buildings is beneficial because such buildings are more likely to perform as outlined in the performance indicators. Moreover, poorly performing buildings generally have higher costs of operation. Therefore commissioning of buildings is essential because it allows for the smooth process of construction which accrues from avoided litigation, improved communication, and fewer change orders.
Generally, commissioned buildings incur fewer costs of maintenance and construction. Such buildings generally have improved quality of air and satisfied occupants because both the contractors and the occupants get value for their money. According to research, buildings that are not commissioned cost up to 20 percent more than those which are commissioned (Mohamed, 2019). Overall, the city of Florida can greatly benefit from the installation of Heating Ventilation Air Conditioning and Refrigeration systems which can be modeled to meet the needs of the elderly population above the age of 65 years.
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Gagarina, V., Lushina, K., Kozlova, V., & Neklyudova, A. (2016). Path of Optimized Engineering of HVAC Systems. Procedia Engineering, 146(1), 103-111. doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2016.06.359
Harris, N., Shealy, T., Parrish, K., & Granderson, J. (2019). Cognitive barriers during monitoring-based commissioning of buildings. Sustainable Cities and Society, 46(1), 101389. doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2018.12.017
Liu, H., & Lin, B. (2016). Ecological indicators for green building construction. Ecological Indicators, 67(1), 68-77. doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2016.02.024
Lu, W., Chi, B., Bao, Z., & Zetkulic, A. (2019). Evaluating the effects of green building on construction waste management: A comparative study of three green building rating systems. Building and Environment, 155(15), 247-256.doi. 10.1016/j.buildenv.2019.03.050
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