Researchers have taken a keen interest in determining the connection between the muscle contraction and the humoral regulation in the 'work stimulus' stimulus mechanism which is secreted from the skeletal muscles in the process of contraction and control some metabolic adjustments in various body part such as liver , the adipose tissue and other body tissues. According to Pederson, the skeletal muscles are responsible for the production of myokines, which is responsible enhances metabolism in tissue and organs of the body. According to the researchers, musclefibres that produce the cytokines and various peptides and enhance autocrine, paracrine and endocrine impacts fall under a category of myokines. Being the largest muscle in a human body, the Muscle plays a major role in the produces proteins. The skeletal muscles are the endocrine muscles that produce myokines that produce the endrocrine impacts invarious parts of the body. The myokines are expressed in various ways which incude; Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, brain-drived neurotropi factor, interleunin-6, IL-8, IL-15-1L-17. In this paperi it is important tolook at the functions of myokins, the different types. Additionally , this research aims to study the functions of various types of myokines in muscles, exercise and obesity
Most of the myokines identified exert their effects within the muscle within they are secreted from they are secreted from. Myokines are the cytokines and other peptide produced skeletal muscles. Peterson and coworkers, try to expound the link between the body exercise and the production of lymphocyte responsible for the immune system. The scientific research on the how exercise induces a rise in the concentration of cytokines, provides a possible connection among contracting skeletal muscles, the immunity functions and the chronic ailments1-4. When a body is not involved in the physical exercises, it is susceptible to diseases such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes and obesity. Physical activities and weight loss protects the body from the never-ending diseases that are linked to low-grade inflammation 8.
Functions of Myokines, types and Its Function in Muscle, Exercise and Obesity as a Literature review
Types of Myokines
The skeletal muscle the main sources of the IL-6 other body organs that produces this type of cytokine include; connective tissue, the brain, and the adipose tissue. The cytokine is produced after the body is involved in the physical exercises12. The intensity of the IL-6 depends on the extent of the exercises, the duration, the aerobic capacity of the body, (Booth et al 2002, pp.25). Continuous exercises enhance high concentration of the IL-6 I the plasma exponentially (Shetty, Kusminski, & Scherer, pp. 245).
According to Pederson (2012, pp. 5554) the main role of IL-6 is metabolism process and not in inflation. At one point, the production of this type of the cytokine occurs after the exercise and when the insulin reactions are activated and at another point the production of it has been linked to obesity and the reduction in the insulin reduction rate1. The IL-6's impact on insulin stirred glucose reactions mostly occurs on the peripheral tissues such as the skeletal muscles and the adipose tissue. Additionally, Gleeson (2007, pp. 334) suggested that, the production of the IL-6 during the exercises helps the body to assume immunity properties that help the body to fight against the chronic diseases.
IL-8 and CXCL-1
IL-8 is a member of chemokines. The production of this myokine mainly occurs in the macrophages and endothelial cells and enhances chemotactic processes towards leukocytes. The contraction of the skeletal muscles enhances the production of the interleukin-8 21. This type of cytokine helps to control the energy processes within the body and the angiogenesis in the endothelial cells. According to Yoon, the IL-8 acts as a paracrine intermediary produced by the skeletal muscle 24. The cytokine exert a pull on neutrophils and as an angiogenic aspect.24 (Pedersen et al.,2007 ,pp. 1090).
CXC ligand1 and IL-8have a chemoattractant activity and also, both are involved angiogenesis metabolism. The main distinguishing feature of IL in the in the angiogenesis processes is its inflammatory characteristics. The IL-8 induces the release of the release of different CXCL-1. The research shows that during exercises, IL-8 is produced and triggers the liver to produce theCXCL-1. The concentration of the IL-8depends on the intensity of exercises (Walsh, 2009).
The cytokine is produced by the skeletal muscle and it is regulated by strength training 1. For this reason, Pederson and Febbraio, (2008, pp.1334) classify IL-15 as a myokines. Reichmann argues that the levels of this type of myokines are high in the skeletal muscle compared to any other type of tissue. IL-15 plays various roles including, enhances anabolic effect, and decreases the mass of the adipose tissue, lipolysis and lipogenesis.
Interleukin-17 is produced by an activated Th-17 cells. Secretion of this type of cytokine is depends on its ability to enhance the large number of the inflammatory effectors in the target cells, to facilitate the release of the TNF -Alpha, IL-6, IL-8 and the release of the Th-17 29. This kind of cytokine stimulates immune signaling and enhances the pro-inflammatory responses. This cytokine enhances the reduction of the lipid deposits in the pre-adipocytes, and lessens the mass of the white adipose tissue.
Physical inactivity leads causes the muscle mass reduction and buildup of the visceral fats. From a research conducted during an exercise shows that the concentration of IL-17 reduces rampant after 2 months of physical activities and as a result the training leads to essential inflammatory effects. However, the pro-inflammatory cytokine heights add to in a variety of tissues with acute exercises.
Tumor necrosis Factor -Alpha is a myokine produced in the skeletal muscle. It is produced by the adipocytes and it functions to facilitate immunity. Additionally the muscle is helpful in the stimulation of proteolysis and the apoptosis and age muscle wasting. It concentration connected to the low muscle mass and lower muscle strength in weak bodies. When an individual is doing exercises to reduce the body and making nutritional restrictions the Plasma TNF-alpha decreases. Research also how that when the old people participate in body exercises they are likely to lose TNF-alpha.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is constituent of the neurotrophic family. The cytokine play a significant role in controlling the survival, development and maintenance of the neurons and also helps in memory development. BDNF is found in low concentration in people with conditions of obesity, Type diabetes and people with extensive insulin struggle. An increase in exercises ca result to an increase in the level of the BDNF in healthy people and those suffering from the sclerosis. This type of myokines is found in the MRNA and protein expressions are in high concentration in the stimulated muscle cells. The concentration of the BDNF is not changed by the aerobic and training. The research shows that this protein is induced after protein contraction and it adds to fat oxidation in the skeletal muscle.
Obesity ad myokines
The adipose tissue play an important role in the storing the lipids and the production of the adipokines such as adiponetin, leptin, resisting, and cytokines such as TNF-alpha and IL-6. The concentration of adipose mass that is linked to obesity is connected to altered secretion of the adipose concentration and the increases the inflammation responses. The high accumulation of the adipose tissue and the skeletal muscle has impact on the endocrine parts and secret cytokines that can adjust the sensitivity of the peripheral insulin.
Additionally, the cytokine TNF-alpha contributes to metabolic disorder and obesity. People with tpes2 diabetes and obesity exhibit high concentration of TNF-alpha in the plasma. When the concentration of the TNF-alpha is extreme, it harmfully controls the insulin stimulated glucose and the absorption of the glucose in the human body.
People with obesity disorders, have high concentration of the TNF-alpha and IL-6 levels. Additionally, IL-6 concentrated in the adipose tissue and the plasma is extreme connected to the body rest, obesity and insulin resistance. This type of cytokine is secreted and after the exercise period when the absorption of glucose and insulin occurring, independent of the obesity status. The release of IL-6 increases with an intense in exercise and at this moment the insulin sensitivity and glucose incorporation and its usage is occurring.
Obesity results from the production of the TNF-alpha and the cytokines such as resistance, IL-6 whose production is not only takes place in the adipocytes but also, from the macrophages found in the adipose tissue. Obesity is connected to the reduction in production of the adiponectin, which has anti-inflammatory effects on macrophages and at the same time the release of adipokine leptin, which acts has pro-inflammatory characteristics increases. Additionally, the overweight disorder associated with the insulin resistance leptin and adiponectin are controlled in the tissues like the skeletal muscles.
LIF is myokine that is a member of IL-6 cytokine. The main functions of this myokine are to stimulate the formation of the platelets, the creation of the hematopoietic cells, the neural endurance and production, and enhance the reproduction of the satellite cells. Additionally, LIF mRNA is produced in the skeletal muscles after resistance physical activities and the LIF protein is created from the myotubes which are electronically enhanced.
To sum it up, this research has provided an outlook of how the myokines are spread and play roles in the plasma and the skeletal muscle during the physical activities, and in circumstances of body disorders. Physical exercises alter the mechanism o immunity and the endocrine function. Regular exercises have play an essential role in the protecting the body against immunity. After doing physical exercises the body immunity suppresses, however, when an individual takes a prolonged exercise the body acquires more protective mechanisms. Therefore, the contraction of muscles is beneficial the health of human being.
Booth, F. W., Chakravarthy, M. V., Gordon, S. E. & Spangenburg, E. E. Waging war on physical inactivity: using modern molecular ammunition against an ancient enemy. J. Appl. Physiol. 93, 3-30 (2002)
Shetty, S., Kusminski, C. M. & Scherer, P. E. Adiponectin in health and disease: evaluation of adiponectin-targeted drug development strategies. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 30, 234-239 (2009)
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Green, C. J., Pedersen, M., Pedersen, B. K. & Scheele, C. Elevated NF-kB activation is conserved in human myocytes cultured from obese type 2 diabetic patients and attenuated by AMP-activated protein kinase. Diabetes 60, 2810-2819 (2011)
Pedersen, B. K., Akerstrom, T. C., Nielsen, A. R. & Fischer, C. P. Role of myokines in exercise and metabolism. J. Appl. Physiol. 103, 1093-1098 (2007)
Walsh, K. Adipokines, myokines and cardiovascular disease. Circ. J. 73, 13-18 (2009)
Pedersen, B. K. & Febbraio, M. A. Muscle as an endocrine organ: focus on muscle-derived interleukin-6. Physiol. Rev. 88, 1379-1406 (2008)
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