Separation of Illegal Families Annotated Bibliography

Paper Type:  Annotated bibliography
Pages:  7
Wordcount:  1710 Words
Date:  2022-09-22


The United State of America, under the tenure of President Trump and his administration, is using the criminal charges on the illegal families caught across the US borders. The charges trigger legal claim as it brings about the separation of parents from their children upon the execution of the civil immigration policy of detention. When the department of homeland security (DHS) detains and prosecutes adults in the court of criminal justice of immigration, the children are not housed together with their parents as per the constitution. Thus, the children end up being separated from their families. Hence, as the parents are jailed or detained, the children are sheltered with the Department of Health and Human Services as the children await collection from the extended family members, foster family, or guardians who are residents of the United States of America. Thus, the main question is whether the laws allow the separation of these illegal families or not. Therefore, this annotation seeks to establish the legality of the separations of these illegal families.

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1. Swearingen, Ashley. "Why Are Families Being Separated at the Border? An Explainer." Bipartisan Policy Center, 6 July 2018,

Swearingen conducted extensive research on the immigration policies to find out the current immigration policy of Zero-tolerance. Swearingen wanted to find out if the new zero tolerance is illegal or legal under the immigration laws given that very many parents are separated from their children upon detention. Therefore, Swearing notes that "the judge dismissed a separate claim in the lawsuit that alleged that family separation violated the rights of asylum seekers" (1). Additionally, the researcher noted that the Immigration and Naturalization Act explicitly postulates that the criminal prosecution of illegal entry and reentry into America is entirely legal.

Moreover, the website supports the topic of annotation due to the following qualities. First, it addresses the reason why families are separated at the borders; it discusses how the policy leads to children being separated from their parents. Another quality feature is that it gives examples of the cases that were annulled as they claimed that separations of families are illegal. Additionally, the website gave the dates (March 2017) that the DHS Secretary John Kelly declared that the separations are legal as per the immigration laws.

2. Stubel, Michael. "What You Need to Know: Immigrant Family Detention." Bipartisan Policy Center, 30 Jan. 2018,

Stubel researched the current immigration policies that talk about family detentions. The research addressed family detention practices prior to 2014, and it subsequently follows the 2014 migrant influx where, the website noted that "in FY 2014, the U.S. Border Patrol apprehended a total of 68,445 family units, a 361 percent increase over FY 2013's 14, 855" (1). Thus, giving rise to illegal policing and controversies on the detention of the parents such as the rival of the Flores Agreement of 1997. Stubel then gave alternatives to detentions as well as an inclusive and exclusive US immigration trend that led to the seriousness of immigration family detentions.

The presentations by Stubel present logic ideas that are relevant for the topic under discussion since it addressed the legality of the family detentions. First, it gives the current pictorial of the family detentions that shows how families are separated in America. Additionally, it justifies the family dentations as it identifies the origin of the current family separations way back in the reign of President Bush, Obama and currently Trump. Therefore, the information provided in this website sanctions that due to the need of reducing the illegal influx of immigrants by detaining and prosecuting families' ends up separating since no law currently bars the illegal immigrants' family separations.

3. Waldman, Paul. "The Trump Administration Owns Its Cruel Policy of Separating Families." The Washington Post, WP Company, 15 June 2018,

Waldman expounds on the current illegal family separations that occurred since the reign of president Trump. Waldman identified some of the existing prevalence of separated families since late 2017 to dates. Waldman notes that there is illegal immigration of families in the borders of the US, especially from the Northern and Southern borders. For instance, the website notes the origin of the family separations policy, "In March 2017, while he was the secretary of Homeland Security, White House Chief of Staff John F. Kelly said he was considering separating families "in order to deter more movement along this dangerous network. I am considering exactly that." (1). Therefore, existing policy forces families to be separated because it is legal to enforce the immigrants' policies.

Waldman noted that by law the families are being separated legally through the administration of Trump is taking the matter to the extreme which makes the entire procedure cruel. In addition, the source gives credible information that addresses the topic of discussion. For instance, it identified the occurrences and case study justifying the ongoing parent separations and an influx of children rendered homeless. Additionally, it can be deduced that this source gives the timely incidents that attempted the negotiations of lowering the cruelty acts family separations despite the pursuit of the law that detains illegal immigrants.

4. Slack, Jeremy, et al. "In the shadow of the wall: Family separation, immigration enforcement, and security." (2013): 07-37.

Slack gives the shadows behind the family separations, immigration security and enforcement. Slack conducted extensive research that gives a preliminary database of the migrant at the US borders. The journal provides the family reunification information upon the deterrence caused by family separations in case of detentions (11). Additionally, the journal gives the operation streamline of the immigration detentions in case one is married. Moreover, Slack (33) gives the interior enforcement as wells as securing communities. Lastly, a compressive conclusion is stated where it identifies that "increased border enforcement has dominated recent discussions about immigration reform," (37).

The information provided by Slack is of substantial quality in addressing the needs of the topic under annotation. It uses various data sources to validate the conclusion that the various enforcement has led to the domination of various discussions that governs immigration reforms and more specifically on the ones that touch on the family separations of the immigrants. The research also gives a well-defined method of data synthesis as well as reliable contacts and sources, which is a plus on the synthesis of the extensive statistical data and a wide scope of knowledge in the journal.

5. Martinez, Daniel, and Jeremy Slack. "What part of "illegal" don't you understand? The social consequences of criminalizing unauthorized Mexican migrants in the United States." Social & Legal Studies 22.4 (2013): 535-551.

This article examines the social repercussions of the criminalities of persecuted individuals that have passed through the borders of USA, thereby rendering family separated. The journal focuses on the criminalization of the immigration laws and incarceration-oriented way of addressing the illegal immigrants while in the USA. Nonetheless, the article uses the two theories of illegitimate structures to address the branches of sociology for immigrants who face the defamed criminal elements while facing trials of unauthorized entries. Nevertheless, the result conclusively notes that "in order to maintain the security apparatus and its economic prominence, a subsection of migrants must be created that will continually remain in contact with the State" (7).

The article addresses the topic under annotation by giving information that concerns this paper's topic. Among the factors that make the article substantial includes the face-to-face data collection of the victims' criminalization of the immigrant laws. Secondly, the researchers used an extensively large number of participants (210) of the formerly illegal immigrants of the US in northern Mexico. Additionally, the research is vetted useful because of the vast literature that seeks to address the dentations and immigration laws of illegal families in the USA. Therefore, the conclusion drawn from the research is that the family detention of illegal parents is a social crime.

6. Brabeck, Kalina M., M. Brinton Lykes, and Cristina Hunter. "The psychosocial impact of detention and deportation on US migrant children and families." American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 84.5 (2014): 496.

The research conducted by Brabeck et al. (496) examined the psychosocial effects on detentions and deportation on United States migrant families and children. The research notes that very many unauthorized migrant families are vulnerable to deportations and dentations, "Approximately 4.5 million U.S. citizen children live in mixed-status families, in which at least one family member is an unauthorized migrant and therefore vulnerable to detention and deportation from the United States" (496). Therefore, the journal conducted an extensive literature review on the immigration detentions and their resultant parent separations especially on the unauthorized immigrants and person with mixed parental heritage. The effects of the government actions are discussed. Additionally, the researchers used the psychological and social theory to explain the resultant effects. Nonetheless, the literature reviewed gave the dilemma face with the children whose parents have been deported or detained as well the socio-scientific approach to the impacts of detention of the mixed-up parental status.

The research addresses the topic studied through various angles. First, the research uses the social approach of looking into the detention of the parents and the effects. Secondly, the psychological effects of the results of detention and separation of the parents are studied which makes the research substantial. Additionally, there are other quality factors such as the extensive data collection and presentation that validates this source. Therefore, it can be concluded that the social and psychological approach of the separations of illegal families is cruel.

7. Dreby, Joanna. Everyday Illegal: When Policies Undermine Immigrant Families. Oakland, California: University of California Press, 2015. Internet resource.

The book gives an implicit predicament of eighty-one families of immigrants who faced family problems and separation as a result of deportation and detentions. The source gives a clear introduction of the legal status of these families, the threats they faced while faced with deportations and the resultant pecking order on the immigrant families as well as stigmatization that accrues across the USA which raised concern of the illegality framework of the immigration law. It is clear that detention and separation of family is an activity that started way back in the 1980s which raised concerns with emergence of complainants where, "public policy institutes, like the Applied Research Council, have published on the devastating costs of deportation on children and families, especially when children end up in foster care after a parent's detention or deportation" (174).

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