Role of Race, Ethnicity, and Gender on Opportunities in Sport Management Essay

Paper Type:  Essay
Pages:  4
Wordcount:  905 Words
Date:  2022-12-12


For students aspiring to pursue a career in sports, their perception of the field can influence their decision going forward. The article, Students' Perception of the Role of Race, Ethnicity, and Gender on Opportunities in Sport Management by Williams Stowe and Elizabeth Lange seeks to investigate how undergraduate student perceives race, ethnicity and gender relations in the field of sports management. The research question being addressed is whether race, gender or ethnicity affects the perception of discrimination. Moreover, the article seeks to address the impact the factors have on the perception of barriers and career opportunities in the sports industry. This paper aims to review this article by identifying the research methods employed by the authors discuss their results and give a reaction to their research.

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Research Methods

The research used a mixed method approach with surveys and focus groups using the framework of Critical Race Theory (CRT) in its assessment of perspectives on race, ethnicity and gender relations in sports. In assessing how students perceived the barriers and opportunities in the field, qualitative methodology was used. The research use of CRT was informed by the fact that the framework recognizes the prevalence of racism in the United States from an aspect of law, culture, and psychology. It is used in researches that require that are aimed at studying the unique experiences of people of colour. The research was conducted in two very different institutions, the Historically Black College and University (HBCU) and the Predominantly White Institution (PWI). The participants who participated and completed the survey were 105 in total, 60 from HBCU and 45 from PWI (p.34). The survey involved participants giving demographic information, filling Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire (PEDQ) and Stereotype Confirmation Concern Scale (SCCS). Both male and female genders participated in the research. Participants were black, white, Hispanic American Indian among others. The research found that in focus groups, PWI students are positive than HBCU students, particularly white males (p.36). The African American students reported that race was influential in their opportunities and challenges in the sports industry. The researchers recommend more education for students through group discussions, current events or assignments that seeks to highlight discrimination in the sports industry. The authors have also suggested that educating practitioners in the sports industry would be key to easing discrimination.


The use of CRT in the research was proper in that the method has been used by other researchers in scouring the broad landscape of American life (p.35). It has successfully found an association between racism and a range of institutions and practices. The research focus on the perception of students in sport is objective in addressing how racism affects sports. This is particularly important in as much as we can learn at very early ages the various stereotypes that act as a barrier to opportunities in the sports field. Overcoming the gender and racism barrier in sports takes on an added significance when one considers the role of other entities such as media in depicting women and non-white athletes in particular. That is black athletes as entertainers. Aiming at the perception of students is good as it is the stage prior to them taking a career in sports. Therefore, addressing ethnicity, racism, and gender in sports will enhance access to opportunities for minorities within the sport and will contribute at recasting the negative perception that exists in sports and other segments of American society. The research has a few weaknesses. The views and quotes cited in the research are mostly from African American and fewer comments from whites, and almost no comment from a Hispanic or American Indian who had a significant number. The assertion that arises from this is that the research is biased. There was no white student in HBSU and only 1 Hispanic and 2 from other groups. This implies that the assertion by the researcher that, "African American students from the PWI perceived more discrimination than African American students from the HBCU because they are a minority at the PWI" is questionable (p.39). This is because there were no whites in HBCU to clarify the minority aspect they point at.


I would recommend the article to my colleagues who might want to review or work on American culture and race issues. The endorsement is based on the fact that the research aligns with the findings of other peer-reviewed studies about barriers for minorities in the sports industry. The research used the appropriate methods in data collection and analysis. It has provided an insight into the most important issue currently facing sports. The insight offered by the article calls for further investigation at specific areas of the sports industry. Moreover, the article is very recent. The article has contributed significantly to the fields of culture, sports, ethnicity, and education.


Overall, this article is very straightforward from the abstract to the conclusion. The article achieved its goal of outlining the perception of students about the sports industry. Scientists who might want to investigate further on the topic should aim at eradicating the weaknesses outlined in this review. That is, obtaining a larger sample size in their study. Moreover, they should concentrate on specific groups such as Hispanic who were not largely mentioned in this article.


Williams Stowe, R., & Lange, E. (2018). Students' Perception of the Role of Race, Ethnicity, and Gender on Opportunities in Sport Management. The International Journal of Sport and Society, 9(4), 31-43. doi:10.18848/2152-7857/cgp/v09i04/31-43

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Role of Race, Ethnicity, and Gender on Opportunities in Sport Management Essay. (2022, Dec 12). Retrieved from

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