The structure and the format that has been used in the article ("The Cultural Influence of Adolescent Prescription Drug Abuse") makes it easy to read and understand. However, it is not in line with the stipulated format for a peer-reviewed study. A peer reviewed article is quite different from an essay. It should have an abstract, the body, findings, and conclusion. The conclusion part should have the strengths, weaknesses, and some of the limitations in the study (Manske 1051-1055). Additionally, there should be a section that highlights research gaps on the topic. The article "the Cultural Influence of Adolescent Prescription Drug Abuse" has some of these features. It has an abstract that explains the background and findings. However, it does not have a conclusion and methodology section. It has an introduction part that provides the background of the study. Nonetheless, it does not have some of the most fundamental sections. It has a current research section that fully introduces the topic, citing previous articles on it. Building on the concepts provided at the introduction, the authors of the article examine parental attitudes and awareness on the abuse of prescription drugs. They also delve into some of the prevention efforts, culminating into a perspective and a summary (Taylor 304-311). Therefore, I argue that the article is not well-structured and formatted according to the guidelines given for a peer reviewed article.
A research abstract must have a background, purpose, methodology, research findings and conclusion. Taylor (304-311) provides a background that becomes the basis for the research (Manske 1051-1055). He begins by mentioning that a large number of adolescents are abusing medication drugs at high rate. He builds on these by stating that even if the data given by monitoring the Future Study of 2013 shows a drop in the number of adolescents that abuse prescription drugs, the future is not bright for students who continue with the risk-related behavior. Moreover, parents are naive and not aware of the adolescent's misuse of the prescription drugs, making it difficult to come up with long-lasting solutions. These statements, therefore, form the background. While it is comprehensive, the abstract does not clearly state the purpose and methodology of the study. Unlike the format that should be followed by a peer reviewed article, this one jumps straight to the findings. As such, the reader does not get to know the type of approaches used and the purpose the study. Additionally, the abstract does not have a conclusion part where it elaborates what the research has discovered and determined (Taylor 304-305). As such, the abstract does not capture all the aspects required for a peer review article, making the study not able to follow the required format and structure.
Besides the abstract, the article provides a comprehensive introduction. Taylor (305) effectively introduces the topic by first talking about prescription drug abuse and the effect it has on adolescent health. It goes ahead to give prevalence rates and relevant definitions from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Service Administration. It offers a basis for the study arguing that the continued utilization prescription medication, without a certain form of restriction, is likely to lead to substance addiction, dependence, and detrimental outcomes. Different examples of the detrimental effects of prescription drug abuse ranging from the physiological and psychological effects of the illicit utilization (Taylor 305). The introduction part provides a background but it does not mention the purpose of the study which is fundamental for a healthcare research. Furthermore, it does not have research questions and hypothesis that will guide the study. By not having these elements, the reader finds it difficult to understand the research.
Unlike, the abstract and the introduction sections, the current research section has all the concepts required. Like any other medical research study, the article provides a literature review section. Literature review part of an article must contain relevant studies on the topic. It captures ideas and findings from other researchers. It highlights the findings and determines the direction the instigation on the topic had taken in the past. Taylor (305) using a survey that was undertaken by the Monitoring the Future Study, he reveals that the rate of prescription use is declining considerably. He further gives some the statistics related to the urban and the rural adolescent abuse of particular substances. What makes the statistics credible is that it used large sample sizes, for example, one of the studies used a sample size of 17,872 (Taylor 305). From such a sample size, the researchers were able to determine that there were similarities in the percentage number of youth in urban and rural communities abusing illegal drugs like marijuana and cocaine. From the same sample the researchers were able to get prescription drugs that were mostly consumed by the adolescents. Besides surveys that had big sample sizes, Taylor (305) used current literature than were not more than 10 years old. As such, the literature review followed the set format and structure.
Besides the current research section, Taylor (306-307) discusses adolescent rationale for abusing drugs. Just like the literature review, this part of the article gives the different reasons given for the high drug abuse rate by the adolescents and youth. Usually before a study reaches this section, there is the methodology which explains how the research has been undertaken. Methodology contains the research design, data collection methods, sample size, sampling design, and data analysis. All these, unite to form the basis for concluding the research. However, the article does not have the section. It jumps straight to examine adolescent rationale for the abuse, the parental attitude and awareness. It also skipped the analysis and research findings. However, that article has handled pertinent areas of the study.
Other than not having the research findings and methodology sections, the article provides some of the prevention efforts ranging from behavioral health campaigns, prevention campaigns, and lastly, coalition building. Lastly, the article has a summary section which is an important part of any research (Manske 1051-1055). Summary of any research must restate the thesis, provide the findings, give a conclusion, and highlight limitations and strengths of the study. The section must also have research gaps and future research on the topic. Taylor (310) does not cover all these aspects but provides solutions to the problem being discussed. Some of the recommendations that he gives are having resiliency training programs to make sure that the youth do not fall victims of peer pressure. He also advocates for prevention education program that will teach on adolescent prescription medication abuse. He mentions that parents and teachers have a great part to play in protecting the lives of the youth. Learnings institutions, teachers, and recreational leaders should assist in making the adolescents to get an understanding the detrimental effects of prescription abuse.
In conclusion, most researches on the topic have followed the format of a peer reviewed. They have the abstract, introduction, research methodology, analysis, conclusion, and summary. These parts are important sections of any research as they highlight important concepts of the research. They should be adhered to as it is the set standard for a medical study.
Manske, Paul R. "Structure and Format of Peer-Reviewed Scientific Manuscripts." The Journal of Hand Surgery, vol. 31, no. 7, 2006, pp. 1051-1055., doi:10.1016/j.jhsa.2006.06.018.
Taylor, Ozietta D. "The Cultural Influence of Adolescent Prescription Drug Abuse." Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, vol. 25, no. 4, 2014, pp. 304-311., doi:10.1080/10911359.2014.969124.
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