It can be established that nanotechnology is a rapidly growing interdisciplinary technology seen as an emerging industrial revolution. It deals with the materials that are 1 - 100 nanometers in length (Nasir, Friedman, & Wang, 2013). The essentials of nanotechnology lie on the fact that properties of given materials can change drastically in the situations where their dimensions get reduced to a scale of a nanometer. Thus, in the present-day situations, nanotechnology has been applied in the textile industry, whereby there is the understanding, the manipulation, as well as the control of matter at a length of 1 - 100 nanometers, in such a way that the chemical, physical, alongside the biological properties of any given materials can get engineered, altered, and synthesized in the development of next generation of the improved structures, materials, systems, and devices (Nasir, Friedman, & Wang, 2013). It has been applied in the development of textile materials with the required characteristics such as antimicrobial properties, fire resistance, water repellency, soft hand, durability, unique surface structure, as well as with high tensile strength.
Specific Applications of Nanotechnology in Textile and Fabrics
Nanotechnology is attracting the attention of the world in an increasing manner since it is greatly perceived as offering a significant potential in various ranges to its users. Also, the new and unique properties of Nanomaterials are attracting businesses, researchers, and scientists because of its great economic potential (In Ul-Islam & In Butola, 2019). Nanotechnology has a real commercial potential for the textile industry. It is primarily because the conventional methods for imparting various properties to textile and fabric do not always bring about permanent effects, with the potential of losing their functions following wearing or laundering (Nasir, Friedman, & Wang, 2013). Thus, nanotechnology can act as a relief, where it can bring about greater durability of textile materials and fabric, due to the Nanoparticles with large surface area compared to volume ratio, alongside the high surface energy it possesses, hence providing a better affinity for the fabrics as well as leading to the increase in the durability of the function at hand. Also, the coating of Nanoparticles on some fabrics cannot affect their hand feels as well as breadth ability.
In the task at hand, there is the explanation of the application of nanotechnology in:
- Department wise
- Properties of textile materials
- Apparel industry
Application in the Department Wise
The textile and fabric industry has gotten impacted by nanotechnology (Nasir, Friedman, & Wang, 2013). The applications include:
- Nanotechnology Being Used to Manufacture Composite Fibers
- Carbon nanotubes
- Metal oxide nanoparticles
- Nano cellular foal structures
- Clay nanoparticles
- Carbon Nanofibers and nanoparticles
- Nanotechnology Being Used in Textile Finishing
- Self-assembled Nano layer
- Nanoparticles in finishing
- The upgrade of chemical finishes alongside resultant functions
Applications in the Apparel Industry
There is the treatment of textile and fabric with nanotechnology materials to aid in the improvement of their properties, hence making them durable for longer periods and have more nice colors (Mansfield et al. 2017). The examples of Nano improved fabrics and textiles are:
- Nano socks that have been treated with silver nanoparticles. The silver acts to neutralize odor and infections
- The body warmers that make use of phase change materials that respond to the changes in body temperatures
- Wrinkle-resistant threads and stain repellants that are woven in textiles.
- Therefore, the specific applications of nanotechnology in textile and fabric are:
It is the best-recognized application and concerns the sharkskin suit that is worn during the world Olympic championships. The suits include plasma layers that have been enhanced by nanotechnology to aid in repelling water molecules, and they have been designed in such a way that they can help the swimmers to glide in the water. It has managed to become a common feature in major swimming events since all the competitors are in the race of enhancing their chances of winning.
Flexible Electronic Circuits
The Nanoribbons are currently forming the basis of chops that are quite flexible. They have the capability of wrapping around the edges of microscope coverslips, alongside being very stretchable in such a way that they can get twisted to a corkscrew.
It can be established that amongst the first uses of nanotechnology are in the lifestyle applications. In such a case, cosmetics and textiles became among the original products of nanotechnology. Thus, an example of nanotechnology materials alongside technologies in lifestyle applications is that of the bulletproof vest. In the process, there is the development of future nanotechnologies with the capacities to use it in the creation of smart and interactive devices: which can sense thermal, electrical, magnetic, and chemical stimuli.
Application in the Properties of Textile Materials
There are some properties imparted in the textile and fabric materials, which are soil resistance, water repellence, improvement of dyeability, anti-static and UV-protection, anti-bacteria, flame retardation, and self-cleaning fabrics. They are:
Nano textile improves the property of water repellence of the fabrics through the creation of Nano whiskers: the hydrocarbons alongside the 1/1000 of a size of typical cotton fiber, which gets added to the fabric in the creation of peach fuzz effect without having to lower the cotton strength (In Yilmaz, 2018). Some of the spaces between whiskers in the fabric are smaller compared to typical water drops, yet still larger compared to water molecules, hence water remains on the top parts of whiskers as well as above the surface of fabrics (In Yilmaz, 2018). However, some liquids can pass through the fabric when the pressure gets applied. The performance is always permanent and maintains breath abilities.
UV Protective Finish
Garments protect the wearers from weather alongside the harmful rays of the sun, which include ultraviolet radiation. The property of the fabric to block UV light gets enhanced when delustrant, ultraviolet absorber, or even pigment finish is present and aids in the absorption of ultraviolet radiation while blocking their transmission through the fabric towards the skin.
Nano care, self-cleaning cotton fabrics get created through the modification of cylindrical structures of some cotton fibers that make up the fabric. Using some Nano techniques, the cotton fibers are covered in a fuzz of minute whiskers that create air cushion around the fiber (MONTAZER, 2018). When some water hit such fabric, it beads on points of whiskers, with the beads compressing the air in cavities that are between the whiskers hence creating some extra buoyancy (MONTAZER, 2018). The fabric will be super non-hydrophobic. The whiskers will also create some few points of contact with dirt. In the situation that water gets applied to dirtied fabric, the dirt will adhere to water in a better way than it does to the textile surface, hence carried off with water that beads up while rolling off the fabric surface.
Revolution of Nanotechnology in Textile and Bringing of Change in Future
Nanotechnology in the textile industry is revolving by the development of smart textiles. In such a case, smart textiles get defined by the fabrics, which symbolize the next generation textiles that will be used in different fashions alongside technical textile applications. The smart textiles have gotten designed and developed to fuse technologies and integrate computer power, which can be used in sensing and reacting to stimuli (In Muthu & Ecole Nationale superieure des beaux-arts, 2017). Thus, the inception of smart technologies and materials to fabrics pave the way for the achievement of various potential applications including conducting energy and electricity, communication between devices, reaction and protection of dangerous environments. Smart textiles were used for clothing and apparel alongside space, robotics, medicines, automobiles, surgery, aircraft, alongside military battlefields where they can play the role of lifesaving materials (Nasir, Friedman, & Wang, 2013). Also, smart textiles are and will be used to release moisturizers that act as skin medication.
Additionally, smart textiles ad in controlling body temperature can potentially change color in pictures and patterns, alongside muscle vibrations in the athletic activities. Also, there is the emergence of intelligent textiles that have the capability of thinking for themselves and acting accordingly (In Ul-Islam & In Butola, 2018). An example is where they can keep people warm in chilly environments. The technology is also suited for the protection as well as safety applications. Examples of intelligent textiles include conductive materials and phase change materials. Finally, there shall be the wearable textiles that are the combination of small flexible displays emitting light and sensors (Mishra & Militky, 2019). They facilitate the warning signal from the body stimuli. The sensors usually monitor respiration, temperature, and heart rate, and send distress signals for the modifications that will make the body comfortable in the long run.
In Muthu, S. S., & Ecole Nationale superieure des beaux-arts (France). (2017). Textiles and Clothing Sustainability: Nanotextiles and Sustainability.
In Ul-Islam, S., & In Butola, B. S. (2018). Nanomaterials in the wet processing of textiles.In Ul-Islam, S., & In Butola, B. S. (2019). The impact and prospects of green chemistry for textile technology.
In Yilmaz, N. D. (2018). Smart textiles: Wearable nanotechnology.
Intelligent Textiles and Clothing for Ballistic and NBC Protection: Technology at the Cutting Edge. (2012). Dordrecht: Springer, Netherlands.
Mansfield, E., Kaiser, D. L., Fujita, D., Voorde, M. H., & John Wiley & Sons. (2017). Metrology and standardization for nanotechnology: Protocols and industrial innovations. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
Mishra, R., & Militky, J. (2019). Nanotechnology in textiles: Theory and application.
MONTAZER, M. A., J. I. D. (2018). NANOFINISHING OF TEXTILE MATERIALS. Place of publication not identified: WOODHEAD.
Nasir, A., Friedman, A., & Wang, S. Q. (2013). Nanotechnology in dermatology. New York, NY: Springer.
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