Although there have been a lot of information regarding on how this particular concept of the circadian system put in control daily cycles in the behavioral and physiology of Drosophila and other various vertebrate models, the marine vertebrate has often been under looked in terms of research dealing with circadian rhythms. (Nassel, & Zandawala, 2019) This particular study has focused on the rare and known species called Startles sea anemones, Nematostella vectensis. This is a species that has been on the outlook by the scientists for its great potentiality on being research organisms. Furthermore, the recent study that shows the sequenced genome of N.vectensis has made it an important element and model for molecular evolution explorations on circadian behavior. Crucial data and information on behaviorwere required in conducting correlation of gene expression patterns to certain behavior are on current trend lack N. vectensis.
Research and studies have indicated that circadian rhythmicity forms a key element in an adaptation process that has independently evolved in the state of Metazoan and the various group that is non-metazoan. (Gates, et al, 2016) Bilaterian organisms, the greater concept had been made out concerning circadian signaling through extensive research done in a well- characterization of models in Organisms. To understand more on the evolutionary process history of circadian behavior and expression of the rhythmic gene, more studies are needed in the process of species that divergences at informative point and term for evolution.
The Organism Starlet sea anemone, Nematistella vectensis has emerged as one of the most powerful cnidarian models with desirable genome sequence and growth that is suitable for available tools as well as molecular resources. As a proof in ways of its utilization, Nematistella has already given a way forward in setting evolutionary of Metazoan circadian clock. (Gates, et al, 2016)
The study chooses to do more research on the circadian cycle where there was the use of the N. vectensis was the one which was used for the experiment because this particular species had the potential to show the basis of molecular of the circadian cycles in both the economical desirable organism which for example corals and taxonomic groups. There was also the suggestion of these organism possessing molecular component which is critical to the circadian clock mechanism making it be conserved in the animals. The study document various movement in polyps under a very well controlled condition to help in the investigation of circadian locomotory behaviors in N. vectensis. But understanding the circadian gene functions could make it possible to understand the behavior characterization. The study and hence the experiment developed a locomotor behavior to try to explain the circadian cycle in the N. vectensis. The study also evaluation was based on the fact that depending on the particular species that is being tested and the environmental condition the species find themselves, there was the possibility of behavior that was related to the internal clock (Ruckebusch, 1972). Early studies that were conducted by Bohn they made a suggestion from his finding on the experiment that showed that the sea Actinia equina has shown expansion and retraction on the body column that followed by daily patterns after they persisted darkness for more than 8 days. There was another observation which exhibited contrasting outcome as people like Sweeney made the observation of circadian behavior in the coral species. Form this it was observed that the expansion of the tentacle fluctuated daily which shown some nocturnal behavior but the lack of persistence forms these species has significantly brought about doubt of cardiac behavior which purposely governed the behavior of these organisms. But considering the fact that these experiments used the full characterization of the behaviors that were observed.
From the result of the experiment was trying to prove that the environmental factors could influence the locomotory activity of the photic cues. According to the experiment it was founded that under 12 hours darkness and under 12 hours light the N. vectensis shown a high level of locomotion activity in the 12 hours of darkness and slow movements during the day which indicated that a stable nocturnal behavioral rhythm. This is clear evidence of the fact that endogenous clock regulated locomotory rhythmic activities in N. restenosis. Another result that was significant to this experiment was the LD condition which was significant in measuring the activity level of the organism under different times. Form the observation the locomotory behavior was observed more on the onset of the darkness and form some organism the onset occurred almost 2 hours to the darkness and there was low locomotory behavior observed on the offset of daylight as the organism show behaviors of low locomotory response. This behavior might have resulted from the fact that the during the LD experiment the animals were not fed and hence it could only be concluded that from the result the N. centesis had displayed nocturnal locomotion only at the being of the experiment. (Albers, 1984) The reduction in locomotor behavior was as a result of masking which was a behavioral characteristic's for circadian cycle considering the fact that the circadian variation in movement activity often reflected on the daily activity. Hence, I can conclude that the reason behind the circadian variation was due to the daily bouts of constriction and elongation. I also noted a very interesting feature of the N. vectensis was the presence of a higher activity frequency component this condition helped in persisting the lighting condition which remains constant.
Even though its show great potentiality in the revolutionization research field, there are still many questions challenging the form of a mechanism of circadian regulation and significance in both behavioral and Physiological in cnidarian of a circadian clock. (Meuti, & Denlinger, 2013). Among factor standing out is that, despite Nematostella and Acropora being the member of the same class of Anthozoa, they exhibit and reflect on substantial difference in physiological factors. In this particular case, the studies have shown Acropora as well as other reef-building types of corals, usually host symbionts algal which is believed to possess their own circadian clock. Furthermore, it is an endorsement of the strong diurnal signal associated with Metabolic process in photosynthesis and since Nematostella has inadequate algal symbionts, it gives a simpler form cnidarian model entailing regulation of circadian.
In vertebrates, the component heme plays a crucial role in the regulation of circadian through the indications and signaling of Rev-erb nuclear receptors. However, its contrary to expectations because homologs are not found in cnidarian therefore, the expected role of heme in cnidarian circadian when it comes to regulation is unknown.
Though critiques are there on this research sample organism, I think at some point it's the best concept because of an of how it ensures that studies in the ever-evolving organism can still be catered for in lab experiments. I will like to see more research involving more technological ways for effectiveness and also revolutionized on how organism researches are conducted.
Albers, H. E., & Ferris, C. F. (1984). Neuropeptide Y: role in light-dark cycle entrainment of hamster circadian rhythms. Neuroscience letters, 50(1-3), 163-168.
Ruckebusch, Y. (1972). The relevance of drowsiness in the circadian cycle of farm animals. Animal behavior, 20(4), 637-643.
Meuti, M. E., & Denlinger, D. L. (2013). Evolutionary links between circadian clocks and photoperiodic diapause in insects.
Gates, R. D., Lesser, M. P., Voolstra, C. R., Gruber, D. F., Price, D. C., Weber, A. P., ... & MacManes, M. (2016). Comparative genomics explains the evolutionary success of reef-forming corals.
Nassel, D. R., & Zandawala, M. (2019). Recent advances in neuropeptide signaling in Drosophila, from genes to physiology and behavior. PeerJ Preprints.
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