Religious Studies Based on Guidelines for Bibliographical Sketch Assignments

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Justine martyr (one of the earliest apologists to establish Greek framework for discussion of Jesus as the Logos; also died a martyrs death)

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(Saint Justine Martyr was among the earliest Christian apologists. Besides, Saint Justine is termed as the foremost interpreter of the theory of the Logos in the second 2nd) century. He was martyred (alongside some of his learners) and is considered as a saint by the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Oriental Orthodox Churches.

(Saint Justines date of birth is uncertain but would seem to fall in the first years of the second century. His hometown was Flavia Neapolis. He was born in the year 100, and became a christian in the year 130. ) he preached and stood by Christianity in Asia Minor as well as at Rome where he was martyred about the year 165.)

Flavia Neapolis (apparently known as Nablus) in Samaria, is the place of birth of the Saint Justin Martyr. Unbelievably, Justin was born into a pagan family. However, he later defined himself as a Gentile. Bacchius (Saint Justin's grandfather), had a Greek name while Priscus (his father), had a Latin name. These names from the different tribes bore some speculations that justices forefathers might have settled in Neapolis as soon as it was established, or, they were rather descended from a Roman diplomatic community which may have been sent there.

The early Christian leaders were known as The Apologists. They were believed to live from the early second century to the early third century. As such, they followed immediately after the ministry of the apostles of Jesus. The Apologists were not only the frontline Christian intellectuals but also gifted teachers as well as excellent writers. They defended Christianity in the marketplace of ideas dominated by the Greek philosophical thought pouring out of Athens (the great hub of the known world by then).

The Greek philosophers often mentioned the concept of the logos as the curbing power of the world. They viewed it as an impersonal force. However, the logos embodied the view of creation, the objective in life, basic meaning, and ones eternal destiny. In their perception, the logos were directly linked with ones fulfillment and happiness. Therefore, when the Apologists ministered in this context, they preached of the Messiah as the Logos. This is exactly how the Apostle John speaks of the Word-the Logos- at the beginning of his Gospel and first Epistle.

Justin Martyr, as well as other Apologists, stood by the ruling of the Greek philosophers. They even copied their languagee.g. the word logosand assigned it its actual Christian significant meaning. The ancient apologists seized upon this concept and used it for evangelistic purposes in their day.

Clement of Alexandria

Clement of Alexandria (well known as Titus Flavius Clemens) was a Christian theologian.

Date of birth and death

No one knows well about the date of birth of Clement of Alexandria. However, he is believed to have been born ad 150, in Athens. He died between the years 211 and 215. Just like Justin Martyr, Clement of Alexandria was also a Saint.

Interesting or important background story

The parents to Clement of Alexandria were Athenian pagans. Clement of Alexandria was a missionary theologian to the Hellenistic (Greek cultural) world. At his early age, Saint Alexandria visited different institutions of learning such as in Italy as well as the eastern Mediterranean areas among many others. Alexandria was converted to Christianity by his last instructor. Pantaenus (allegedly a previous Stoic theorist), Alexandria succeeded his counselor as director of the institution about 180.

In the following two decades, Alexandria was the head of the Alexandrian Christian society: he published some decent as well as theological articles and biblical commentaries. Besides, Clement combated profane Gnostics (religious dualists who believed in deliverance through mysterious facts which exposed to humans their spiritual birth, personalities, and destinies); he took an interest over supplications for faithful adherents who were suspicious about a intellectualized Christianity; He also instructed persons who after the fact turned into religious and ecclesiastical leaders (e.g., Alexander, bishop of Jerusalem).

Anthony the Anchorite

Anthony the Anchorite was one of the earliest Desert Fathers. He was also a Christian saint from Egypt. Anthony can be differentiated from other saints named like him through the different nicknames (Anthony the Abbot, Anthony of Egypt, Anthony the Great or Anthony the Desert). In addition, he can also be termed as Anthony of Thebes or Anthony the Anchorite. Besides, he is referred as the Father to All Monks due to his significance among the Desert Fathers along with all the Christian monasticism.

Date of birth and death

We honor the respected and God-fearing Father Saint Anthony the Great every January the 17th. Clement Alexandria, Anthony the great, was born in a well-endowed family in Upper Egypt about 254 AD. The feast of the God-fearing Father, Saint Anthony the Great is renowned on the17th of every January by the Orthodox ecclesiastical. Herakleopolis Magna, found in Upper Egypt is the hometown to the great saint. At the age of eighteen years old, his parents died. However, his unmarried sister took the responsibility to take care of him. In the year 285, the Saint Anthony opted to go by the sayings of Jesus Christ who said: Whoever wants to be faultless, go, trade anything you owe. Give what you get from trade to the needy, and you will have riches in heaven; and come, follow me (Matthew 19:21). As such, he gave all his riches to the needy in the society. Also, he dedicated his sister to a group of Christian virgins.

Notable contributions to society

The great Saint Anthony is recognized (noted) for being one of the first Puritans who tried to live in the desert environment, completely cut off from advancement. His separate way of living was notably unfavorable than his antecedents. Toward the second century, there were also well known religious ascetics, for example, such that example of piety Thekla. An example of piety Anthony chose should take after this custom Furthermore headed out under that basic desert locale known as the Nitra done.

Later on, he relocated to a certain tomb, whereby he lived and locked himself where he depended on some local residents who volunteered to bring him some food. When Satan perceived his abstinent life and much compelling worship might have been jealous What's more beat him mercilessly, abandoning him oblivious.

When his allies from that local surrounding came to pay him a visit and found him in that situation, they took him to the places of worship.

What influenced the great Saint?

After his recovery, Anthony made another attempt and returned to the wilderness, further out, to a mountain near the Nile. He lived there hidden in an old deserted Roman citadel for about twenty years. In Athanasius view, the devil freshly renewed the war upon St. Anthony, but this time round the ghosts resembled snakes, scorpion, wolves wild beasts, and lions. They seemed to devour him or shred him into small pieces. But Anthony would giggle at them sarcastically and tell them, whoever with the power over me, only one would have been enough to fight me with me. Upon him stating these words, they would disappear immediately, and the Almighty gave him the triumph over Satan. While in the citadel he communicated with the outer world by a hole through which he would get food, and say fewer words. Saint Anthony would make a piece of loaf which he would feed on for about six months. He never allowed anyone to get into his cell: whoever came to him, stood outside and listened to his advice.

Macrina the saintly woman

Macrina the saintly woman was a holy woman whose piety influenced the Cappadocian Fathers.

Date of birth and death

Macrina, also known as Thekla, was born at Caesarea, Cappadocia to the parents Basil the Elder and Emmelia. Saint Macrina the Young was her grandmother. Among the three Cappadocian FathersCappadocian, two of them were her younger brothers (Saint Gregory of Nyssa and basil the great). Macrina died in the year 379 in Pontus which was her family's estate. She died while a monastery and convent.

Important background story

Thekla, the other name of Macrina the young, was born about 327-330. Her mother, Emiliana, had a vision whereby her unborn baby by then, a female child, had already been called Macrina, after the apostle of Saint Paul. Her parents taught Thekla how to recite and memorize the sacred writings and also to practice the household skills. At the age of twelve (which was the least age of marriage for ladies amongest the Romans), her parents organized for Macrina to get married to a young gentleman from Saint Basil, but she opted for celibate life. After the death of her fiance, she convinced her protective dad that the planned marriage would be as nice as any marriage. From then henceforth Thekla was a widow and led a life of celibacy asceticism.

The fathers death was coincidental with Peters birth. Macrina assisted her mother in raising her young ones and managing the family's finances and simultaneously convincing her mother to endure without the servants as well as other necessities. Macrina helped to raise her youngest brother, who later became, as their elder brother Basil, a frugal leader.

After her sisters and brothers were brought up, Macrina led Emiliana, her mother, to the simple life, and both developed a convent on the family estate, with their initial servants as their female and religious nuns. Legend help us understand that the society became a second nunnery with Peter, Macrinas younger brother. Her simple guidelines do not endure, nor does the complete account regarding the influence that Basil and she as well practiced upon each other. However, Gregory gives thekla credit for helping to bring Basil into the life. Each one of them, as it can be concluded from explanations of Macrinas thought and the Law of Saint Basil, watched the life of a convent as the same to that of the joined family.

Thekla took care of her young ones and her frugal family even after the sorrow that accompanied the demises of Emiliana then afterwards, Basil, her father, in the year 379. When Thekla was nearing her death some time later that year, she consoled Gregory, set him for her demise, and motivated him with faith hope and calmness.

References

Martyr, J. (2001). Dialogue of Justin, Philosopher and Martyr, with Trypho, a Jew. chap, 64(68), 231-233.

Goodenough, E. R. (1968). The Theology of Justin Martyr. Ripol Klassik.

Hoek, A. (2013). Clement of Alexandria. The Encyclopedia of Ancient History.

Osborn, E. (2008). Clement of Alexandria. Cambridge University Press.

Smith, M. (1973). Clement of Alexandria and a secret Gospel of Mark. UMI (University Microfilms International).

Cowan, J. (2006). Desert Father: A Journey in the Wilderness with Saint Anthony. Shambhala Publications.

Flaubert, G. (2001). The Temptation of Saint Anthony. Modern Library Classics (Paper.

Tyson, J. R. (1999). Invitation to Christian spirituality: An ecumenical anthology. Oxford University Press, USA.

Burrus, V. (2004). Is Macrina a Woman? Gregory of Nyssa's Dialogue on the Soul and Resurrection (pp. 249-264). Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Silvas, A. (Ed.). (2008). Macrina the Younger, philosopher of God (Vol. 22). Brepols Pub.

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