Perceived burdensomeness refers to the feeling that one's life is a burden to the society, particularly to family and friends. The individual feels that it would be more valuable to the family and friends if they are dead than when they are alive. According to Litwiller and Brausch (2013), higher levels of these thoughts are associated with suicidal ideation. In adolescents, for example, the second main cause of death is suicide (Bauman et al., 2013). The study by Bauman et al. (2013) revealed that in addition to poor family connections, perceived burdensomeness encourages suicide ideation among high school students. Bullying and victimization in schools lead to depression. The students view themselves as a burden to friends and family, and this may result in suicide. Therefore, there is a need to keep encouraging these young people to overcome such challenges.
Belongingness refers to the feeling of acceptance by those close to a person. Young adults have an inherent desire to be part of a group. When this feeling is thwarted, it may lead to depressive symptoms. The affected individual experiences reduced self-esteem due to neurological changes. Consequently, they may start having suicidal ideations. A study by Schneider et al., (2012) established that low relational value among high school students leads to psychological distress Examples of activities in high school that lead to thwarted belongingness include bullying and discrimination. Due to lack of enough emotional support, such students have continued to take their lives through suicide. They should be encouraged to embrace each other in schools despite any differences to avoid such incidences.
Suicidal desire refers to extensive thoughts, plans, and incomplete attempts to commit suicide (Litwiller and Brausch, 2013). It is associated with depression and other mental disorders. Additionally, suicidal desire may be triggered by events in the surrounding. Bullying in schools and cyberbullying, for instance, may lead to the desire to commit suicide among the victims. Violent behavior and drug abuse is also a major factor that may cause suicide ideation in adolescents. According to Litwiller and Brausch (2013), binge drinking of alcohol is associated with suicidal thoughts. Drug-induced psychosis in students may also bring thoughts of committing suicide.
Bauman, S., Toomey, R., &Walker, J. (2013). Associations among Bullying, Cyber Bullying, and Suicide in High School Students. Journal of Adolescence., 36(2), 341-350.
Litwiller, B. & Brausch, A. (2013). Cyber Bullying and Physical Bullying in Adolescent Suicide: The Role of Violent Behavior and Substance Use. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42(5), 675-684.
Schneider ODonnell, L., Stueve, A., & Coulter, R. (2012). Cyber Bullying, School Bullying, and Psychological Distress: A Regional Census of High School Students. American Journal of Public Health, 102(1), 171-177.
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