Psychological Disorders in DSM-5 Essay

Paper Type:  Essay
Pages:  7
Wordcount:  1823 Words
Date:  2022-05-15


The term psychological disorder is a term that has been used to refer to the mental disorders or psychiatric disorders (mania). Psychological disorders are the patterns of behavioral symptoms that cause brain instabilities. Disorders are often caused by several activities that include relationship problems, conflicts, among others. According to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), there are several categories of mental or psychological disorders that have been seen to be affecting the people immensely. Below is a discussion of one of the psychological disorders stated in DSM-5 based on its etiology, symptoms, interventions, and controversial issues.

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Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder is a psychological and mental disorder that is often characterized by changes in activities, moods, energy levels, and behaviors. One of the etiological causes of bipolar disorder is depression. Other primary causes include abuse, stress, daily activities, behaviors, emotions, among others. Once an individual develops bipolar disorder, he or she will start to develop some symptoms that include fluctuation of emotions, depression, and mania. Therefore, bipolar disorder is the psychological illness that needs proper attention and management. On the other hand, there are several biological, social, psychological, and genetic factors that contribute to the development of bipolar disorder. One of the biological factors that can trigger the development of bipolar disorder is a chronic illness. In most cases, people who have other incurable diseases can easily develop depression and stress that can result in the development of bipolar disorder. Another biological factor is genetics. This is the study of genes and variations in the bodies of human beings. In this case, if an individual realizes that his or her family is not the original family, mental and psychological disorders will start to develop. In other words, an individual will start to develop stress and depression because of the family problems. Based on the psychological factors that cause bipolar disorder, these are the factors that associate with the mind of an individual. One of these factors is the emotions. Emotions or feelings are the main influences of bipolar disorder. When an individual is hurt emotionally, he or she might feel depressed and the next thing is to develop some kind of psychological disorders. Emotions often come due to the daily activities that may hurt or cause discomfort to an individual. Besides emotions as the psychological factor behind the development of bipolar disorder, stress and hostility is also another factor. Stress comes in when a person has lacked something such as basic needs. As a result, bipolar disorder develops with time until the patient reaches a stage of a bipolar disorder that is known as Bipolar Disorder II. The same thing applies to hostility. Being hostile to an individual can cause a psychological instability that may lead to the development of bipolar disorders. On the other hand, social factors can also be the reason behind the development of bipolar disorders. These include relationships, love, and physical activities. When there is a problem in love and relationship, an individual may develop bipolar disorder due to severe depression. Therefore, bipolar disorders can be caused by several factors that may be controlled by undergoing therapy and counseling.

Major Symptoms

There are several warning signs and symptoms that can be seen from a patient suffering from bipolar disorder according to 'Warning Signs and Symptoms' article. These symptoms vary due to the status of a person and the level of depression. If a person has a high level of bipolar disorder, for instance, Bipolar Disorder II, his or her symptoms will be severe and easily noticeable. But in the early stages, bipolar disorder cannot be recognized in an individual. It will just involve the psychological symptoms that cannot be seen physically.

Lack of sleep

One of the major symptoms of bipolar disorder is lack of sleep. Patients who suffer from bipolar disorders often encounter sleep difficulties. This is because of depression and stress. Therefore, a patient or an individual who is always awake during the nights might be suffering from a bipolar disorder.

Mood Swings

Another symptom of a bipolar disorder is the development of mood swings. This is a sudden change in moods and emotions of a patient. Continuous change in moods for a long time depicts the development of a bipolar disorder.

Loss of Appetite

Often times, patients with bipolar disorders cannot eat much. This is an observable symptom because a patient can stop eating because of stress and depression that can result in a psychological disorder. Therefore, loss of appetite is an indication of a bipolar disorder in some of the individuals.

Impulsive Drug Usage

Another primary symptom of a bipolar disorder is impulsive consumption of drugs. In most cases, people who have bipolar disorders try to regulate their stress and depression by taking a lot of drugs such as alcohols. They consume a lot of drugs uncontrollably with the aim of reducing psychological disorders.

Speech Pressure

Rapid speech is the most common symptom of a bipolar disorder. People who tend to develop bipolar disorders can talk rapidly without standing on the same point. This kind of people is seen to be jumping from one conversation to another. In other words, they are not stable psychologically.

Task Incompletion

Another well-known symptom of bipolar disorder is the inability to complete tasks. In this situation, an individual may not complete the given works, especially in a working environment. He or she will partially perform tasks and always leaving with a lot of excuses. This shows that the person is not stable in his or her mind.

Poor Attention

Poor attentiveness is another main symptom of a bipolar disorder. This symptom is seen during the conversation with an affected person, or during the mass meetings. An individual may not concentrate but instead, focus on other things or just keep quiet without responding to other people.

Suicide Attempt

Of all the other bipolar disorder symptoms, the suicide attempt is the most recognized symptom. It is clear that a person attempts a suicide because of mental disorder or depression. A person will attempt to kill himself or herself because of several reasons. In this situation, the status of the disorder will be higher.

Impacts of Strengths, Resiliency, and Cultural Factors in establishing a Coping Strategies

In most healthcare organizations, bipolar disorder has been remedied by encompassing different forms of treatment. The organizations and therapists have focused on strengths, resiliencies, and cultural factors in the treatment of bipolar disorder (Oedegaard, Berk, Berk & Oedegaard, 2013). Therefore, focusing on these three strategies have impacted the families and individuals in establishing the positive coping strategies of bipolar disorders and all forms of depression. One of the ways in which focusing on resiliency, strengths, and cultural factors in establishing the positive coping strategies is that the patients suffering from bipolar disorders will get proper intervention and medication. For instance, if a therapist focuses on the strengths that can be applied to this particular disorder, a patient will be positively impacted because of the outcomes. A bipolar disorder patient will get some ideas and methods of relieving stress and depression that may lead to disorder.

On the other hand, focusing on the cultural factors as a way of treatment or assessment can impact the patient positively by allowing him or her to establish a positive coping strategy. Cultural factors such as the way of life, education, and others, can be the best interventions to be used. In most of the cases, individuals develop bipolar disorders because of stress and biological factors. So if the therapists and nurses will focus on the cultural factors to diminish bipolar disorder, patients will start establishing positive strategies for bipolar disorders. They will learn how to solve the cultural issues causing the bipolar disorders. When focusing on the cultural assessments, families are the population to be considered. Bipolar disorders can affect the family because of the cultural factors that are unavoidable. Therefore, for the bipolar disorders to be fully cured in the family, therapists and psychologists should focus on the cultural factors and find the means of solving them.

Resiliency is also another treatment or assessment method that should be focused when remedying bipolar disorders on individuals and families. This is a way of recovering and avoiding difficulties that can result in the bipolar disorders. Focusing on resiliency can result in significant approaches that can make individuals and families establish positive strategies for bipolar disorder. The reason why focusing on this factor as a treatment method will be of significance is that patients suffering from bipolar disorders will acquire skills used to fight the disorder. Patients will thus establish positive coping strategies that can reduce bipolar disorders in all means.

Treatment and Intervention of Bipolar Disorder

There are several ways of treating and reducing bipolar disorders in the family or in an individual life (Vieta, Salagre, Grande, Carvalho, Fernandes, Berk & Suppes, 2018). Literally, treating bipolar disorders depend on the stages- Bipolar Disorder I, and Bipolar Disorder II. The early stages of bipolar disorder have some kind of interventions that need to be used. The same thing applies to the critical stage of bipolar disorder. But generally, bipolar disorders have the common treatment and intervention methods that are used by therapists and psychologists to intervene a family or an individual.

One of the treatment and intervention methods that have been researched to be effective is using therapies. These are rehabilitation from various experienced groups such as support groups. In this treatment option, patients suffering from bipolar disorder are given psychoeducation that encompasses mental health education and methods of solving the situation. Psychoeducation is normally given by the experienced support groups that understand the ways of treating bipolar disorder. Cognitive behavioral therapy is another form of therapy that is used to treat bipolar disorder. These are the talks that are used to modify the negative thoughts of an individual and give him or her positive thoughts that establish a positive coping strategy for the disorder. Therefore, therapy is the best way of treating and intervening bipolar disorder in the family.

Another effective way of treating a bipolar disorder is using medication. The medications such as Anticonvulsants, Antipsychotics, and Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) can be effectively used to prevent seizures, depressions, and other symptoms of psychiatric conditions. Medications can be provided by the supportive care units in the nursing homes or any health organization that has therapeutic treatment options.

Using specialists also is another significant treatment option that has been researched to be effective. Specialists such as Psychiatrists, Clinical Psychologists, and Primary Care Provider (PCP) are the best person to handle the patients with bipolar disorders. What these specialists do is that they primarily treat mental disorders by using medications. They also provide counseling that may prevent bipolar disorders to the depressed individuals.

Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) is another secondary intervention and treatment method for bipolar disorder. This method is used when all the other treatment methods such as medication have failed. In...

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