Sociological and psychological theories are applicable in the case. The approaches are essential as they provide a systematic manner of analyzing and understanding a criminal scenarios (Mughal, 2011). On that note, the psychological theory that applies to the situation is the Vygotsky's Theory of Child Development. The theory states that child development involves a series of eras. The periods include early initial stages, infancy, early infantile, pre-school period, school age and adolescence (Blunden, 2011). The stable development eras are associated with some crisis. He argues that the children undergo structural and psychological transformation influenced by the environment. Therefore, the child's behavior at a given stage is determined by the environmental exposure. The theory applies to Johnson's case since his criminal act can be attributed to his growth environment. He was raised in a violent situation where his parents were frequently fighting. Therefore, the kid adapted the violence and extended the acts to his adulthood. It is important to note that Johnson's behavior was as a result of his childhood environment. If he had been raised in a pleasant atmosphere, he would have embraced good morals.
Equally important, the sociological theory that applies to the scenario is social disorganization theory. The approach concentrates on the immediate social environment such as peer group, school, and family (John, 2013). The method reveals the reason why some people are likely to engage in criminal activities than others. Additionally, it explains why societies differ in crime rates. According to John (2013), the concept suggests that the immediate environment affects the child's behavior regarding crime. Therefore, people who are who grow up in a high crime zone are more likely to become criminals. The theory applies to Johnson's case since his behavior is as a result of the environment that he grew up. It is essential to note that the parents did not contribute to his traits of stealing, but were the cause for his violent attitude. Johnson learned theft from his peers which also a significant environmental factor.
Concepts in the Psychological and Sociological Theory
A critical concept in Vygotsky's Theory of Child Development is the social situation of development. The idea outlines that particular age period starts with a unique, original, single and exclusive relation. Additionally, the connection varies for different ages and between child reality and the corresponding social reality (Blunden, 2011). Vygotsky considers the social environment of a child as a predicament. The child starts life in a vulnerable state. However, successful passage through all the processes results to a mature member of the community capable of catering for personal needs. It is worthy to observe that the requirements are satisfied based on social positions, moral responsibility, and effects on society's cultural and institutional reproduction. However, if the child grows in an unconducive environment, the results differ. The child will cater for personal needs but will ignore social responsibility.
It is also essential to observe that one of the fundamental concepts of social disorganization theory is the features that are conducive to crimes. A criminologist, John Hagan, argues that poverty is the primary cause of poverty (John, 2013). He claims that crimes levels are high in areas where poor people are concentrated. The locations are prevalent in inner city regions and constitute the minority groups. Additionally, John, (2013) claims that loss of employment contributes to crimes due to the need for a constant source of income. Moreover, the theory suggests that drug and alcohol abuse results to an increase in poverty rates.
Relation of the Theories to James' Father
The theories related to James's father and his reaction towards his son. Vygotsky's theory of child developments applies to the father as he was raised in a hostile environment. It is crucial to note that the father's parents were frequently fighting. Therefore, the parents' behavior affected his child development. He grew up in having a violent behavior; hence, his intolerance towards his wife. On that note, the man recognizes that he was violent and did not want to direct his attitude towards his son. James' father was trying to protect him from being violent. Additionally, the father rejects the child because he suffered rejection in his childhood. Moreover, he did not learn from a morally upright environment. Consequently, he lacked proper morals for his son to copy. Therefore, James' father was trying to keep out to prevent his son from adopting his traits.
Notwithstanding, the social disorganization theory can be used in determining the studying the relation between James and his father. It is essential to observe that James' father immediate environment was unconducive. He grew without fatherly love; therefore, he could not give the same to his son. His childhood social environment negatively impacted his social relations. Consequently, he was unable to relate well with James. It is also worthy to observe that James' father become a drunkard because his father was one. Therefore, he felt that avoiding his son would prevent him from copying the behavior.
The Effects of the Theories on the Future Generations
The sociological and psychological theories will affect the future generations. Vygotsky's theory of child development will influence the development of child behavior in the future. The children will continue to gain cognitive skills from their surrounding during different stages of development. Therefore, the child's social behavior will be dependent on the circumstances present across all its stages of development. Consequently, it is essential for parents to create a conducive environment that will facilitate child to grow in responsible and morally upright individuals.
It is also essential to observe that social disorganization theory will influence the future generations. The crime rates are expected to increase in areas with economic challenges as individuals strive to survive. Therefore, the children who grow up in these regions are likely to become thieves due to environmental influence. It worthy to note that children learn from the society; therefore, the general social character will contribute to individual characteristics for the coming generation. On that note, crime rates can be reduced in the future by improving the economic status of the poor people through poverty eradication programs.
Conclusively, the child's environment determines the child behavior during childhood and adulthood. For instance, James becomes a violent criminal since his parent were violent and uncaring. The Vygotsky's Theory of Child Development is used in the analysis the social vice. The concept reveals that James acquired his traits from the environment during his stages of growth. Additionally, the social disorganization theory supports that the social behavior of an individual is dependent on the social surrounding. Therefore, proper parenting can reduce crime rates significantly.
Blunden, A. (2011). Vygotsky's Theory of Child Development. The University of Witwatersrand. Retrieved from https://www.ethicalpolitics.org/wits/vygotsky-development.pdf
John, K. (2013). Crime Causation: Sociological Theories. Retrieved from http://law.jrank.org/pages/824/Crime-Causation-Sociological-Theories.html
Mughal, M. (2011). Theories of Crime. SSRN Electronic Journal. doi: 10.2139/ssrn.1940486
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