Paper Example With Questions on Organizational Theories

Paper Type:  Essay
Pages:  5
Wordcount:  1222 Words
Date:  2023-02-06

Directions: Place your answers to the questions found below directly underneath the questions. Answer the questions using full sentences. Use proper grammar and sentence structure, providing your solutions. Be sure to place the page number at the end of your answers to indicate where your answer came from in the chapter reading. Do not use other sources besides this chapter to provide your answers. Place your name in the header area above. Be sure to do a spell check before submitting your completed assignment.

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Question 1: Early contributions to organization theory are discussed in Chapter 2. What example is provided via the Holy Bible concerning organization?

The book of Genesis outlines the creation story which tells of a central power which is GOD and the subordination of duties through his creations. This is the same as the Adam Smith Hierarchical pyramid, which shows a central authority and span of control. (Pg. 26)

Question 2: Early contributions to organization theory are discussed in Chapter 2. Explain the components of five-level organizational design cited by the author used by the Catholic Church

  • Controlling which involves the daily routine and monitoring of activities.
  • Planning which involves setting steps to be followed in the daily operation.
  • Organizing which involves setting structures that ensure operations run effectively.
  • Directing which involves the comprehensive set of guidelines and steps to ensure that activities go as planned.
  • Coordination which involves harnessing everyone involved in the activity for better performance. (Pg. 30)

Question 3: According to the definition of an organization provided by S.P Robbins, what are the several facets of an organization?

They include structure, culture, people, and communication. (Pg. 28)

Question 4: What did ancient Greece; the Chinese state and ancient Babylonian military contribute to organizational theory?

They contributed to the creation of structures and foundations of organizational development through their laws and principles. (Pg. 26)

Question 5: Explain the essence of Taylor's Scientific Management concerning organizational theory.

Taylor's scientific management involves the embodiment of the belief of workers to increase their earnings and the duty of the managers to create techniques and means that lead to maximum effort and efficiency. The essence of Taylor's theory of management is that it has created an overall motive for work and service through money. Surveys have shown how dollar motivation is still the strongest motivation ever in industries and workplaces for everyone. (Pg. 27)

Question 6: Explain the contributions of the Gilbreth's to organizational theory.

The Gilbreth's noticed the efficiencies that were evident in the bricklaying by experienced workers. His ideology of applying motion studies to streamline the bricklaying process and development of the special scaffolding for various types of jobs saw the increased production of bricks per day through reduced motions. (Pg. 29)

Question 7: What did Henry L. Gantt contribute to organizational theory?

Henry Gantt, through his Gantt chart, was a graphic designer that has been and is still used in planning, control, and scheduling of activities. He also created an incentive system of payment that awarded workers who went an extra notch in standards and also it was an excellent motivator for coaches to monitor their inexperienced workers. Supervisors were assigned bonuses through the incentive system that he created. (Pg. 29)Question 8: Explain the six levels of management Henry Fayol contributed to organizational theory.

The technical activities are the level of management where all the events that relate to adaptation, manufacturing, and productions processes were carried out.

Commercial activities include the second level of management where the marketing operations are involved. Such marketing operations include; buying, selling, and exchange.

The third level of management involves financial activities; this level of management consists of the search for optimum utilization of capital in the firm and the market.

The fourth level of management involves security matters; this is the level of control where managers are involved in ensuring that services involving the protection of all people and property are in place.

The fifth level of management fully involves accounting activities; here, events such as stock-taking, command, cost, balance sheets, and statistics take are carried out.

The managerial level involves the level of management where supervision, planning, organization, and control take place. (Pg. 30)

Question 9: List and briefly describe Fayol's 14 Principles of Management.

Division of work which involves specialization as a means to increase productivity through maximum efficiency.

Authority and Responsibility, which is a principle that ensures that both the workers and the managers of employers meet their end of the bargain in the management process.

Discipline is a principle that dictates that very policy and regulation laid by the company has to be followed and adhered to all times by all the stakeholders and employees.

  • Unity of command - it advocates for the need to have a channel of command that must be followed.
  • Unity of command -working as a team is essential for the overall success of the firm.

Emphasis on the subordination of personnel interest to general or common interests - it emphasizes the need for everyone to take responsibility for the organization objectives.

  • Remuneration - fair pay for all workers without any discrimination such as underpay.
  • Centralization - a balance of power has to be met for operations to run smoothly.
  • Scalar Chain - steps of the chain of command is essential in the global organization of the company.
  • Order - systematic planning and coordination is vital in a smooth business operation.
  • Equity - justice and fair treatment of all employees is an essential ingredient in management.
  • Stability of tenure - security of employment and income is a motivator for new workers to give their best and learn faster.
  • Spirit of co-operation - it brings upon all the elements of unity and coordination for the growth of an organization.
  • Initiative - involves the capacity to create and design a plan for the execution of business objectives. (Pg. 30-31)

Question 10: Describe Max Weber's contribution to Organizational Theory?

Max Weber's bureaucratic design helped organizations in the establishment of a rational, problem solving and decision-making systems which are the building structures for growth and development in an organization. (Pg. 33-34)

Question 11: Who published the Hawthorne Studies; describe the experiments, and what movement was started by the studies?

Elton Mayo published it. The first experiment was the illumination experiment which involved physical orientation of scientific management. The second experiment was the relay room experiment which was used to explore the best combination of work and rest periods. The last study was the bank wiring room study that was aimed at making an observational analysis of the informal workgroup. The Hawthorne study started the Human relations movement. (Pg. 34-36)

Question 12: Describe the essence of the contingency approach to Organizational Theory.

A contingency approach has been noted as the best school of through because it ensures that the organization stays afloat despite any environmental changes that may arise in the course of operation. It is an assurance of a better fit for the firm. (Pg. 40)

Question 13: Describe the essence of the political approach to Organizational Theory, the bounded rationality perspective, and Jeffery Pfeiffer Model.

The political approach ensures that the leadership of the organization is fit to run the affairs of the organization effectively. The bounded rationality perspective helped managers always to establish systematic procedures to arrive at decisions. The Jeffery Pfeiffer model helped mangers understand that organization designs represent the result of the power struggles and the importance to have control in organizations at all times. (Pg. 40-410

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