Australia's Air Traffic Management Plan (ATMP) usually defines the Air Traffic Management (ATM) in Australia. It is responsible for the roles and duties of the aerospace industry and the government in Australia as well as setting out important activities of the industry, and problems and initiatives, both long term and short term that have an impact on air traffic management. Generally, the current and future based initiatives that are addressed by Australia's Air Traffic Management Plan are designated in such a way that they facilitate and maintain the air navigation system of Australia, ensuring effective safety, and efficiency in Australia's aviation industry. Australia's Air Traffic Management Plan framework is therefore based on effecting operations and performance of the industry. It works closely with the Australian Airspace Policy Statement in the determination of the key ATM policy objectives and plays a major role in the provision of guidelines to Australian government agencies. These guidelines are used as the base for future planning of Australia traffic management. However, it is the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) that determines the Air Traffic Management. ICAO describes ATM as an active and powerful integrated air traffic management that through the provision of required facilities works in collaboration with other parties perform safe, efficient and economical duties and responsibilities in the aerospace industry. Nevertheless, ICAO works as per the framework and set policies of the Global Air Navigation Plan (GANP) and the Global Aviation Safety Plan (GASP) (Boag et al. 2006). Therefore, all these organizations work closely with each other to facilitate effective, efficient and safe air traffic. Air Traffic Management of different states usually adopts various systems that facilitate air traffic operations and activities. More so, there exist various recommendations that are stipulated by the ICAO regarding Air Traffic Management, despite the fact that these recommendations are usually applicable to specific airspaces. For instance, Australia's Air Traffic Management has adopted systems such as Very High-Frequency (VHF) Omnidirectional Range (VOR) system, Non-Directional Beacon (NDB) system and localizer (LOC) system while the ICAO has set specific recommendations for Australia in reference to their communications, navigation, and surveillance.
Australia's Air Traffic Management has adopted the following systems:
Very High-Frequency (VHF) Omnidirectional Range (VOR) system is a legacy stem that is based on short-range radio navigation. The system plays a key role in enabling the determination of positions by aircraft that have the receiving unit. It ensures the aircraft can stay on course when they are receiving the radio signals. Normally, these signals are transmitted by a specific network. The information, to and from the station provided by the system is magnetic bearing. The ranges of signals, which are transmitted vary in direction with a VHF frequency band of between 108.0 to 117.95 MHz, (Isaac & Ruitenberg 2017) and subject to a signal range reception of 1000 feet above the ground level. It is classified into three groups, that is, high altitude, low altitude and terminal. A Morse code identification or a recorded voice identification can be used to identify the VOR transmitting station (Freestone, Williams, and Bowden 2006). It is also important to note that an aircraft may be connected to two VOR receivers if the craft has dual installed receivers and they can be checked at the same time. The VOR is considered to have a significant accuracy with a variance of one degree. However, the limitation of the VOR is that mountains, power lines, and buildings usually block the signals, or the signals may be reflected. Secondly, VOR receiver equipment deteriorates in certain parts, for example, long distances from the station, affecting its accuracy. VOR system can be replaced with Automatic Direction Finding (ADF) which is an electronic aid that helps in identification of aircraft bearing or a Required Navigation Performance (RNP).
Non-Directional Beacon (NDB) System
Non-Directional Beacon (NDB) system is a legacy system in air traffic that is ground-based. It is basically a radio transmitter that is of low frequency used as an instrument approach. It is applied in Morse code call signs, naval assistance with an automatic direction finder (ADF) and an instrument landing system (ILS). It transmits an Omni-directional signal to the ADF. Their operational frequency is normally between 190 kHz and 1750 kHz (Richards O'Brien & Miller 2010) as according to International Civil Aviation Organization standards. The constituents of a Non-Directional Beacon are Antenna Tuning Unit, the antenna, and the Beacon transmitter. Due to their low cost, reliability, and effective uninterrupted services, they are widely used. They serve as stand-alone primary instrument approaches at airports. The limitations of NDBs is that they are affected by disturbances that result from different factors such as precipitation static and lightening resulting in errors in the process of bearing information. Furthermore, the signals of NDBs are interrupted by conditions of the atmosphere, refractions of coastlines, night effects, rough terrains, and mountains. However, NDB systems can be replaced with Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) which are readily available due to the new technologies.
Localizer (LOC) system is also called the Instrument Landing System (ILS) localizer. It is a component of an instrument landing system which constitutes the horizontal guidance. This horizontal guidance is used in the guidance of aircraft landing along the runway axis. Its operation in relation to transmitting the airport runway and the receiving cockpit instruments. The system constitutes ILS LOC aerials at the end of the runway. It transmits intersecting beams (two). One beam that is slight to the right and the other to the left of the Centerline of the runway. Their intersection determines the LOC. However, the information about the aircraft's displacement from the central line of the runway is given by the airborne equipment. The localizer course is usually within a range of 2.5 degrees (Wettenhall 1962) on every side of the aircraft from the centerline. This sensitivity from the width allows for accurate orientation to the landing runway. The system operates in relation to other components such as compass locator, outer marker, marker beacons, and approach lighting system. However, the limitations of the LOC system is that the glideslope and the localizer beams are subject to interference. There may be a problem of reflection resulting from surface vehicles and aircrafts flying below 5000 feet (Wettenhall 1962) above the ground. This reflection causes disturbances to the signal for the approaching aircraft. More so, there are false courses resulting from glideslope facilities. Nevertheless, the LOC system may be replaced with a Joint Precision Approach Landing System which is said to be integrated partly with the deck landing system.
The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) came into legal being in 1947 with the aims of developing principles and methodologies of international air navigation as well as fostering planning and development of international air transport. It has developed a number of recommendations for Australia to follow regarding their Air Traffic Management. These recommendations apply for all class D of the aerodrome. These recommendations include;
The Recommendation of Performance-Based Navigation (PBN)
International Civil Aviation Organization has recommended for the implementation of Performance Based Navigation (PBN) which is a regulatory framework for approach procedure with vertical guidance (APV) and area navigation. PBN allows for the use of Global Navigation Satellite System that enables effective pilot awareness and further improves operational efficiency and safety. This has been recommended to be implemented and serve as a backup for precision approaches or act as a primary approach. The adoption of PBN will play a key role in ensuring worldwide navigation of Area Navigation. The need for Australia to implement the recommendation is because it is a world leader in the application of Area Navigation. It will play great importance in oceanic operations since Australia has already implemented UPR across the Pacific Ocean. There will also be a decrease in the reliance terrestrial radio navigation due to the widespread use of Global Navigation Satellite System. More so, it has been in use for a significant period of time and is believed to suit the operational environment in Australia due to its spacious volume of air traffic, minimal surveillance capabilities and low radio navigation aid density. Nonetheless, the transition of Australia to PBN will be parallel to the availability of RNAV specifications in all their airspace classes (Pavlovich-Borsuk, Reva & Kharchenko 2015). The objective of implementation will be the provision of a high-level strategy of aviation transition towards the application of satellite navigation as well as ensuring that the ATM system is based on clear operational requirements.
Recommendation On Airspace Modernization
The International Civil Aviation Organization has recommended the airspace modernization. This should include the improvements on Airservices and national standardization as well as leveraging surveillance coverage benefits the modernization of airspace should be aimed at ensuring air navigation safety and improving aviation safety standards, and the performance of the airspace activities. The organization recommended for tranche three of the airspace modernization and the upgrading of different airspaces classes to facilitate the benefits of airspace. According to ICAO, states could implement the recommendation through their respective ATM but were to ensure they meet the required standards as stipulated in the recommendation. The modernization strategy was also aimed at enabling integration in the airspace industry, improving airspace network management to avoid flight delays, and improving environmental performance. Australia would be a subject of recommendation since there are safety cases in its aviation industry. More so, due to the growth of air transport in Australia, there is a need to modernize the airspace to promote safety standards and the operations of the aviation industry in the states. Therefore, there was a need to implement the aviation modernization recommendation of ICAO to accommodate the increasing commercial flights (Pavlovich-Borsuk, Reva & Kharchenko 2015).
Recommendation for Aircraft Accident Investigation
The International Civil Aviation Organization has recommended for the investigation of aircraft accidents. It stipulates that serious accidents and serious incidents such as accident prevention should be reported and investigated. The organization, therefore, has a well set and managed Accident/Incident Reporting System which is a database than enhances the discovery of safety information during the process of investigation. This recommendation is applicable to Australia since there might be an occurrence of aircraft accidents and related incidents. Furthermore, the Australian Transport Safety Bureau (ATSB) agency carries out the functions of the investigations of these aircraft incidents/accidents involving the civil registered aircraft and Australian overseas registered aircraft. The high frequency of occurrences in Australia, for instance, an approximated 150 accident cases and about 7000 incidents per year (Isaac and Ruitenberg 2017) pose a need for the...
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