Motivation is an essential factor that affects employees' competency as well as the successful culture of the organization (Jerome, Scales, Whithem & Quain, 2014, 1). Human resource managers can apply the motivational theories to realize a competitive business culture within the firms. These theories focus on the strategies used in influencing employees' behaviour. Evaluation of the common motivational theories will enhance the employees' productivity in Jack stores that will provide a competitive advantage over the Aldi and Lidl business competitors. The theories outlined below enhance the commitment and dependability of employees within Tesco organization that will be extended to Jack stores.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory
Maslow's theory focuses on the level of needs to explain individual motivation at the workplace that will be based on how the firm addresses the needs (Wilson, 2018, 113). The employee needs comprise security, psychological needs, social needs as well as favourable working conditions. According to the theory, the least satisfied need at Jack stores becomes the essential and dominant need that should be addressed to motivate employees. At the Jack stores, the company may address the needs by providing enough security at the workplace in addition to advocating for a friendly and courteous working environment. The psychological need is the most fundamental factor to be addressed by the firm before ensuring the other needs are provided. Precisely, the need encompasses the basic factors required for the survival of employees such as water, food, and air. The merit factor with the Maslow's needs theory concerns the perceptive understanding of human nature. Thus its application will successfully lead to highly motivated employees at Jack stores (Nankervis, Baird, Coffey & Shields, 2016, 131).
Consequently, the theory summarizes the essential human needs that can be considered in planning, positioning, pricing, and sale of products by design effective distribution channels. This will aid Jack stores to evaluate the best channels for enhancing its competitive advantage in comparison to Aldi and Lidl companies. Besides, the theory can be easily adopted and executed in all managerial sections within the firm to create a successful culture of employees' motivations that in turn impact on the level of productivity. However, the theory lacks proper verification methods to accurately determine the satisfaction of one needs level before embarking on the next. Accordingly, the theory focused on the narrow human population through self-esteem and security. Thus its adoption on a generalized human population is considerably difficult. Moreover, the theory fails to establish the impact of the needs on probable cultural differences.
McClellan's Acquired Needs Theory
This theory advocates that human needs are acquired through learning and motivation over a time duration (De Board, 2014, 234). Importantly, the acquired needs result in varied and diverse performance on the employees. Typically, prioritization and the significance of the motivational needs describes an individual's behaviour in the organization. According to the theory, human needs are developed through three essential motivators that comprise achievement, affiliation, and power ((Chelladurai &Kerwin, 2017, 329). Achievement motivation encompasses the needs that contribute to the accomplishment and demonstration of competency in organizational operations. For instance, in Jack stores, achievement motivation will contribute to the employees' needs for realizing success and mastery of skills that will enhance the firm's performance in comparison to the main competitors. Highly motivated employees seek to achieve and attain the realistic goals of the organization. Thus, to realize high needs for the accomplishment of goals, employees should be provided with regular feedback about the progress of the company with the aim of achieving its goals. Accordingly, the affiliation motivation entails the needs for relatedness, belonging and love within the business environment. Tesco management should strive to create an organizational culture that builds a sense of belonging to the company's social group. For purposes of teamwork in the organization, Tesco management should create a conflict-free, friendly, and cooperative conditions instead of an environment where individual competitions influence employees. Another aspect of motivation based on the McClelland's need theory concerns the power motivation in the organization. In this regard, employees are motivated by the need to have authority and control over the business activities to impose new ideas and strategies of enhancing competency. Therefore, Tesco management should motivate employees with a high need for power to improve the performance of the Jack stores with purposes of stabilizing business competition.
Herzberg - Two Factor Theory
This theory suggests that several satisfier factors influence job satisfaction that leads to high competency among the employees (Nankervis, Baird, Coffey & Shields, 2016, 167). On the other hand, hygiene factors in the organization limit the organization's competency by causing job dissatisfactions among employees. Based on the theory, job satisfiers are more concerned with issues involved in performing the work while job dissatisfies major on the factors that define the work's context. Within an organization, hygiene factor comprises job security, organizational policies, salary, in addition to working conditions (De Board, 2014, 245). Accordingly, satisfiers entail factors such as growth opportunities, recognition, and responsibility. Therefore, the human resource manager at Jack stores should research the significant needs of employees to necessitate increased performance. If applied at Jack Stores Company, the theory will positively impact on the human aspect and care of employees within the organization. Despite its merits in ensuring organizational competency, the theory is limited to overseeing the conditional variables in the company. Accordingly, the theory lacks a comprehensive mechanism for evaluating employees' satisfaction at the Jack stores. Application of the theory does not implicate the interaction between cause and effect between the needs and employees' behavioural performance.
Alderfer's ERG theory
Alderfer's ERG theory categorizes individuals' needs into three major classes. This entails the existence, relatedness, and growth needs (Chelladurai &Kerwin, 2017, 324). Existence needs encompass anticipations to acquire fundamental material necessities, and this is based on the physical safety and psychological needs of employees. Accordingly, the relatedness need concerns the important relationships such as love and belonging of the employees to the organization's culture. Thus, the human resource at Jack stores should create a business culture with a high sense of workers' belonging to the organization. Moreover, the Jack stores should fulfil the growth needs of employees to influence self-development and personal growth that will substantially impact the organization's competency. Importantly, the theory will provide flexibility in the employees' needs within the organizational culture.
Jerome, A., Scales, M., Whithem, C. and Quain, B., 2014. Millennials in the workforce: Gen Y workplace strategies for the next century. E-Journal of Social & Behavioural Research in Business, 5(1), p.1.
Wilson, F.M., 2018. Organizational behavior and work: a critical introduction. Oxford university press.
DeBoard, R., 2014. The psychoanalysis of organizations: A psychoanalytic approach to behavior in groups and organizations. Routledge.
Nankervis, A.R., Baird, M., Coffey, J. and Shields, J., 2016. Human resource management: strategy and practice. Cengage AU.
Chelladurai, P. and Kerwin, S., 2017. Human resource management in sport and recreation. Human Kinetics.
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