Ever since the attainment of independence by most of the Americas and Brazil colonies in the 1820s, the U.S policy towards the colonies had been stimulated by major principles that are found in the annual message of the President James Monroe. Monroes message was inspired by two related series. Firstly, the message was inspired by the successful wars for independence in from Spain by her America colonies. Secondly, Monroe was motivated by the aspirations and the signs of some of the European powers especially Russia and France to colonize or recognize the Americans. After many years, the Monroe doctrine enhanced a rhetorical style related to events that occurred during the Cold War. Many years later, the Monroe doctrine led to the development of rhetorical techniques that were related with the pronouncements made during the Cold War (Murphy 38).
Circumstances Leading to the Formulation of the Monroe Doctrine
The Doctrine occurred as a response to the necessities of politics of the Europeans towards the termination of the Napoleonic Wars. The Great rulers who included the Prussians, the Australians, the Russians, and the British formed the Quadruple Alliance in 1815 following the terms indicated on the Treaty of Paris. These countries directed their commitment towards order, peace and the status quo in struggles to bringing unity among various countries in the world. The war for independence by the Latin Americans stirred a lot of interest among US citizens. Additionally, the formulation of Monroes doctrine was facilitated by the economic superiority and naval capabilities of the Great Britain. The greatest desire of the British leaders was to take advantage of such achievements by taking control of all the commercial transactions within the Spanish America. Furthermore, Richard Rush the U.S minister, and Canning deliberated about the implications of the involvement of France in Spain colonies In August 1823 (Monroe 28).
The Primary Purpose behind the Monroe Doctrine
Monroe Doctrine purposed on stopping the colonization of the Europeans in the Western Hemisphere. At the time of his speech, the welfare of Latin American countries was his primary concern. Monroe in the address stated that the US would not impede the affairs of the Europeans. President Monroe promised that the state would not interfere with the prevailing European colonies in the Western region. More so, he blocked any other nation from beginning a new colony in the western region. In the United States, the doctrine seized in Texas from Mexico in 1842 several years later. Theodore Roosevelt used the knowledge of Monroe doctrine in helping Cuba to attain its freedom from Spain. Also, John F. Kennedy consulted the Monroe Doctrine during the Cuban Missile Crisis and the Cold War. In his first term, Ronald Reagan used this document as justification for the Falklands War of 1982, laying the groundwork for George Bush invasion of Panama without invoking the Doctrine (Sexton 35).
The Major Provisions of the Monroe Doctrine
The Monroe Doctrine stated that there was no longer any openness for the European colonization of South and North America and any effort to subjugate the countries in the Western Hemisphere was an attack on the United States. It also stipulated that the United States would evade meddling with Europeans internal affairs or the existing European colonies. Initially, Great Britain suggested a joint declaration; John Quincy Secretary of State convinced Monroe that only the United States alone should make the statement. Originally, the Doctrine was meant to address specific issues, but it later became a pivotal determinant in U.S when making decisions concerning the foreign policies in the western hemisphere. Initially, the United States had little power to enforce the Doctrine although Great Britain supported it and most of the other countries ignored it. Later, the presidents used it to justify the expansion of the United States. For instance, President James Tyler used it in asserting U.S influence over Hawaii (Murphy 34).
Ways in which the Monroe Doctrine continued the policy of neutrality established by President Washington
In 1789, after the inauguration of President George Washington. The French Revolution started. After the intensification of the revolution, the English hunted to exploit the French governments weakness. Therefore, after the deepening of the problems between the French and the English, America became a target because of this conflict. The conflict resulted in a division of the Americas loyalties between the French and the English. Washington thought that neutrality was the best action, and hence, he avoided the war. After his second term of service, in 1796 Washington cautioned the fledgling nations against the disruptive problems caused by political parties. He informed them about his decision of neutrality and avoidance of alliances. In addition, Washingtons ruling enhanced balance as the first foreign policy of the United States (Alagna 27).
The long Term Effect of the Monroe Doctrine
The Monroe Doctrine became an integral component of American foreign policy and also solidified US position as the predominant power in the Western Hemisphere. When Spanish colonies in Latin America begun to declare their independence, John Quincy Adams crafted the Monroe Doctrine. In an annual address to the Congress In 1823, President Monroe acknowledged the doctrine. All foreign powers were given notice that any attempt to regain control of their former colonies would be regarded as an aggressive act. The doctrine also contained implications on North American soil. Russia was claiming vast swaths of land reaching far south current day Oregon and the Doctrine was clear that any foreign rule would be prevented from expanding their presence in the area that became the West Coast of the United States. The Doctrine can be considered successful in the fact that no European powers intervened in South America. Years later, the Monroe Doctrine of the manifest destiny policy was used to justify western expansion. In the 20th century, Monroe Doctrine was cited as a basis for interventionist policies of the United States (Sexton 42).
Alagna, Magdalena. The Monroe Doctrine: An End to European Colonies in America. New York: Rosen Pub. Group, 2004. Print.
Monroe, Lorraine. The Monroe Doctrine: An ABC Guide to What Great Bosses Do. New York: Public Affairs, 2003. Print.
Murphy, Gretchen. Hemispheric Imaginings: The Monroe Doctrine and Narratives of U.S. Empire. Durham: Duke University Press, 2005. Print.
Sexton, Jay. The Monroe Doctrine: Empire and Nation in Nineteenth-Century America. New York: Hill and Wang, 2011. Print.
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