Romanticism is defined by Morner and Rausch (1997) as "A movement in art and literature in the 18th and 19th centuries in revolt against the Neoclassicism of the previous centuries" Features of English romanticism are determined by the specific socio-historical and spiritual development of British society. Romanticism, since it cannot be classified in simple categories, it has some things they share in usual paintings are frequently greatly creative and idiosyncratic in their tactic; a new found expressive strength produces a visionary emotion. In comparison, Neo-Classicism is controlled, tranquil and straight, Romantic art efforts to demonstrate an enthusiasm of feelings and frequently describes them supernaturally and, similar statements remain true for poetry throughout this period. The industrial upheaval gave birth to prompt urban development and at the same time to severe social difficulties, that led to a precarious attitude in the direction of the predictions for social advance and scientific and technological advancement. This clarifies the self-control of the thoughts of the English Enlightenment. Regarding genre diversity, the work of Mary Shelley is significant, where the processes of the transition from pre-Romanticism (the Gothic novel) to romanticism were reflected. The purpose of this paper involves the possibility to explore the artistic world of the novel, tracing the dynamics of the interaction of Romanticism in the famous work "Frankenstein, or modern Prometheus."
First of all, the title of the novel "Frankenstein or Modern Prometheus" refers us to the ancient mythology, then Frankenstein is like the creator of mankind, with the only difference being that he was frightened of his creation and rejected it (Mellor 220). Also, Prometheus was the husband of Pandora, notorious for the discovery of a box with the misfortunes of mankind.
In her work: Frankenstein, she deliberately confronted the discordancy and the irreconcilability of the Romantic ideals of mastermind and companionship. Eventually, she admits the intrinsic contradiction that makes the system unrecognizable "no man should be an island unto him, but, alas he is" (Shelley, 8). However, Mary Shelley was born into and nourished by the politics and ethics of Romanticism; she recognized that the cost of attaining-some of those goals negates others.
The notion of "romantic", "romanticism" is one of the vaguest general concepts existing in historical, literary science (McWhir 73). This ambiguity is aggravated by the identification of romanticism with romance, which in the abstract psychological sense is understood as a synonym for the heroic dream of a feat for the sake of the future, an eternal impulse to perfection (Rajan 43). Quotations and allusions in the novels of Mary Shelley are polyfunctional: they are used in a pre-emptive function, to create character characteristics, to reinforce the author's ideas and to criticize quoted thoughts, to create a language flavor and a particular atmosphere (Poovey 332).
However, literary scholars identify specific specific features of Romanticism, as a movement connected with the historical realities of their era. It is important to note the critical attitude of Romantics towards rationalism and the optimism of the Enlightenment, as well as their close attention to the spiritual life of man (Dolan). Style of presentation is romantic, the author reveals the fine lines of the human mind, and gradually draws perfect outlines of the mystical world of heroes (Favret). They serve to a greater extent not for the direct characterization of their author, but for the canvas, into which the main storyline is intertwined. Frankenstein leaves his home in the exploration of awareness, this leads to the expansion in him of a desire for knowledge, and to arrogance, as a result of which he creates and animates the human being. Misery falls upon him one by one, he travels to England, again for new knowledge, how to create a friend for his offspring, but he refrains from this step, sacrificing the lives of his loved ones (Hume 282). The artist, created artificially, travels in hunt understanding and love but discoveries only revulsion. He mislays his faith, becomes malicious and harsh, but remorse does not give him break.
Thus, one of the characteristic features of romantic novels is yearning for the "lost paradise" of the Middle Ages, with its intelligence of furtive and the command of faith, and disdain for contemporary rationalism. Therefore, the notion of "romanticism" includes the notion of ancient (primitive) and magical (mystical). The abundance of semantic layers and philosophical ideas turned Mary Shelley's parable novels into precedent texts for new generations of writers. The motif of bold, scientific discoveries, as well as the responsibility of the scientist before his creation and humanity as a whole, has become widespread both in philosophical novels and in science fiction.
Nevertheless, some criticizers have claimed that Frankenstein is essentially more cultured than the style of other romantic authors. As this novel "initiates a rethinking of romantic rhetoric" (Guyer 77). This reconsidering is attained by Shelley's participating and concurrently stimulating the distinctive idealistic tropes that have led in the creation of a novel that according to Goodall (19) is more complicated than he had thought before. The inception of Gothic aspect to Frankenstein leads to questioning of the superficial conventions of romanticism, thus, redefining and contextualizing the passionate script. In other words, the claim through Frankenstein, Shelley not only involvement with Romanticism but, went beyond to take a further movement.
It is of the essence when discussing Shelley's work, to unpin the concept of Romanticism as a literary association: the romantic era was accompanied with the marked departure from the philosophies and methods of the literary period that headed it, that was more technical and lucid. In contrast, Fite (17) claims that poetic verse and style was projected to prompt an innovative and idealistic association to the resourcefulness. Fite (17) further asserts that commonly the romantic poets were looking for a way to seizure and signify the inspiring instant and familiarity, and the more private that instant had been, the better. For example, the narrators in several of the idealistic poem are fundamentally indistinct from the writers themselves. This is one of the approaches in which Shelley show holds and instantaneously matches this specific perfection.
The instance Shelly explains in Frankenstein is neither the moment remembered from her familiarity, such as the meditative instant in an environment, nor is chronicle expression her own, but she is still displaying a specific hunt to attain the magnificent. The search is Victor's effort to generate a living being from unprocessed material in his lab (shelly, 41). It is predominantly inquisitive that this quest happens within the limits of Victor's private lab that is different from natural, countryside setting of various romantic writings. Nonetheless, the landscape of metaphors in the line that Victor articulates his outlooks concerning the happenings is one of the significant quotes from this writing. "No one can conceive the variety of feelings which bore me onwards, like a hurricane, in the first enthusiasm of success," he the reader, remembering the intoxicating project in his lab. "Life and death seemed to me perfect bounds that I should first break through. A new species would bless me as its creator and source; many happy and excellent natures would owe they are being to me" (Shelley 51).
In nature, Victor is a romantic person to the degree that he replicated the idealistic writers' stress on a new method of seeing. The romantics supposed that it was discrete and communal visual thoughts that would develop a new considerate of the world and lead to a flawless form of human beings and the people in which they existed. Victor is the definitive visionary, who is engrossed by otherworldly anxieties and unreachable principles. In this sense, he is highly romantic. ".. And if I cannot inspire love, I will cause fear..." (Shelley 167)
However, beyond characters depict, numerous significant romantic subjects and philosophies are presented in Frankenstein. One of the themes is nature, which plays a significant task in Frankenstein. However, most of the readers are accustomed to romantic verse and perceived that nature is less than task it plays. Nevertheless, at the beginning of the story, the writer saw the essence of familiarizing the readers with particular setting the events are unrevealing from, the abilities of which will equally reflect and challenge the inner state of the key characters. For instance, Victor claimed that nature of the Orkneys and that of his innate nation to be different. Orkneys is described by Zhao on page 36 as " cold, barren, gray and rough''. Contrast to Switzerland which is recall to be colorful and active (shelly 42). Victor describes Swiss in using elements of Romanticism. He described that Swiss is shielded with green vines and the terrain are packed with blue lakes that mirror the bright blue sky (Shelly 43). It is therefore symbolic by the fact Victor has selected to use a barren place to compare it a fertile area as the way of showing contrast for the creation. The difference between the two regions is as unembellished and clear as the difference between the human world and Frankensteins creature. As Victor's family and De Lacys inhabit a world full of beauty, on the other hand, the creatures of the world settle in a bleak world that is intruded from all angels by the unforgiving set of situation. These suitable pairings of characters with their background will are highlighted in the entire novel, while the corporal makings of the environments incite thoughtful assumed for the chief characters: creature and Victor.
On an advanced level of symbolic, Frankenstein is precisely a novel concerning romantic struggling against the accustomed lines or restrictions set on human existence. There several instances in the book of Victor Frankenstein struggling to push beyond his boundaries as a human being by attempting to play a God-related task by the creation of a creature in his private lab (Shelly, 52). According to Victor, studying science and philosophy and proceed to a similar career is not gratifying. In order to prove his words, by trying to perfect the part of the researcher by trying to attain the unbearable, however, the process led to frustrations, this is the fact that exceeding human lines has substantial magnitudes (Cobb, 80)
Shelley is not an abnormal scientist, as his traits have been bargained over the years, but a scientist who has a passion concerning the fundamental questions and concerns of his time. He creates a monster due to his quest for ideal science Kuppers (48) urge that while scientists are more concrete and grounded in reality than the generation of monsters, they have flaws also. This novel assists the readers there is no state which is utterly flawless. Also, there is no social experience, either based on fantasy and reality that will lead to a perfect solution Jasanoff (10). Instead, human beings will usually establish imperfect institutions and creations, and awarded, the people need to be ready to receive responsibility and expect the possible outcome.
Victor is not the only character to exert against and contest the boundaries of traditional, but, the role that Victor made is involved in his fight to experience inspiring association with his surroundings and with other beings. According to Shelly (35), the monster had a tremendous amount of hope that he might be able to befrie...
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