Research Question and Objective
The research question of the paper was to examine the main factors that affect the online shopping behavior of consumers. The research question was not focused on looking at the entire scenario there is a minimal know-how on issues that are related to online consumer behavior. This is because the study is a socio-technical phenomenon that involves so many factors.
The primary objective of the survey is covering the problems that previous studies did not analyze the core factors that influence online shopping behavior of consumers. The aim of the survey was clear since looking at the previous studies, most of them did not indicate the main factors that influence online shopping which was crucial in a research of this nature. Since the study was meant to use reliable sources that would be used in data collection that was related to the consumers, we believe that it will be a success.
The primary goal of the study was to analyze the factors that affect the behaviors of online shoppers that were not tackled in the previous studies. The theoretical framework of the study apparently tries to bring out the background of the modern marketing techniques. Almost every customer in the 21st century uses the internet in buying of their goods and services. They place orders, make payments and also get the delivery of their goods or services using the internet. Many developed countries in the present era only use the internet in managing their business since it is reliable and offers 24-hour services to all the customers.
The previous studies did not bring together all the factors that affected online shopping. Most of them used theories that only focused their study on individual factors excluding others that are also important in research that covered many elements. This study is efficient since it tries to generalize all the factors together to come up with a conclusion that is concrete to the researcher.
The conceptual framework of the study is majorly bright and directly connected to the research. The use of existing and new constructs of the purchase behavior of the consumers was explicit. Concepts such as the kind of shopping behavior that involved users spending a good amount of their income in internet shopping were directly relevant to the study.
Almost all the assumptions that were included in the survey was concise. Assumptions such as age, gender, and income moderate online shopping were exact. The research that was done to show whether the socioeconomic factors affect online shopping indicated that they do not affect either of them. Planned theory of behavior showed that perceived ease of use and trust issues are crucial variables in determining the online consumer behavior through the behavioral control and attitude.
To come up with the convenient and reliable hypothesis of the study, the researcher had to come up with variables that were independent. This meant that the variables should not be correlated, and also they should be independent. Variables such as the return policy, financial risks, and product hazards, subjective norms, domain specific innovativeness, and now- delivery risks were used in the study. Variables that were dependent such as attitude and online shopping behavior was also included.
For the researcher to identify the independent variables, Durbin-Watson test was used. The test was meant to be between 1.5 and 2.5 for the correlation to be rejected between the variables indicating that they are independent. All the hypothesis of the study met the required conditions.
The sources which were used in the survey were carefully selected to fit and come up with a clear conclusion. Sources such as Lewis (2006), George (2004), Swinyard & Smith (2003) and Forsythe et al. (2006) were used in the study. The study was significant in this study since it would have been expensive and time-consuming if the research was to carry out the research on the entire population, sampling was then done, and best samples were taken for the study. The number of questionnaires that were issued to the stores that offer online services was 30. A quality sample of 120 was selected.
After getting back the feedback, the reliability of the questions was tested, and the outcome showed that all of them met the necessary measure which was above 0.7. It was a good reliability measure of all the questionnaires. The measurement was used in the questions and rated on a seven-point Likert scale from strong disagree which is 1 and strong agree which is seven.
The writing style used in this study is analytical because of so many reasons that are evident from the paper. The researcher is precise in what he is trying to communicate. The language used in the study is clear and can be easily understood by those who may want to read it. This is because the words that are used are not complicated, and they are relevant to the study.
Methods /Empirical basis/Material
For a quantitative methodology article.
After the quantitative data had been collected, the analysis was done using various analysis methods that the researcher knew were the best. Durbin-Watson test was used in determining the correlation between the errors. The test was conducted in all the quantitative variables that were involved in the study. The variables were mostly independent variables. After doing the correlation in the method, hypothesis testing was also done with the errors. The standard deviation of the society to be studied was identified using the Cochrans formula. After the calculations, the method turned 120 as the quantity of the entire sample.
For a qualitative methodology article
For easier study of the hypothesis, many regressions were used to examine how the independent variables and dependent variables are related. This method used was most convenient since it put into account all the qualitative variables employed in the study. They tested errors such as no delivery of order, perceived risks, and financial risks. In hypothesis testing, all the above errors on attitude were significant at the 0.05 level. 200 questionnaires were used in data collection and sent to five online stores in Iran through email. There were two categories among the consumer; consumers who purchase and consumers who do not purchase. Questionnaires were sent to both the groups. 107 questionnaires were used and later analyzed. The method used was the best since the stores were easily accessed through their emails and the response was quite impressive.
The data that was collected was reliable and valid since most the respondents were trusted, customers. 44.9% female and 55.1% male responded to the questionnaires. The analysis of data was done using the most efficient data analysis techniques make the presentation effective.
The theoretical concept of the study is directly related to the empirical data. The theory describes the factors that affect online shopping and the empirical data that was collected is of the factors that also affect online shopping such as attitude and financial risk.
The data that was collected through the questionnaires answer the research question. All the factors that were included in the research such as attitude, perceived behavioral control, and domain specific innovativeness were included in the data.
Results & Conclusion
The presentation of data that was done using tables was efficient about the study. The evaluation was also done using best formulas such as correlation and also standard deviation. The researcher interpreted the results in a simple and clear illustrations that had been evaluated. The study in its results discussion links them with the theoretical analysis that was conducted earlier. The variables that were mentioned in theory were incorporated in the results analysis indicating what each one of them had produced. At the end of the research, there were different implications that emerged. They were discussed in both the theoretical and practical contexts. The researcher keenly discusses implications such as the fear of customers on the delivery of their goods after payment. The online retailers should come up with a mechanism that provides assurance of delivery. The objectives of the study were achieved since all the factors that affect online shopping were tackled and remedy provide in each. The study contributes majorly to the stores that offer online shopping. After discussing the factors that affect online shopping, it offers ways in which the stores can use to better their services to the customers.
Finally, it is essential to note that there is a logical and structural clarity of the thesis. All the ideas flow in a sequential order as indicated in the thesis statement. Every paragraph in the study can be understood from any point as stated from the thesis.
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