The Basin of Han River 3
The conflict 3
The Outcomes 4
Sustainability Implications 4
The Basin of River Susquehanna 4
The conflict 4
Sustainability implications 5
The Nakdong River Basin 5
The conflict 6
Sustainability Implications 6
The Delaware River Basin 7
Sustainability Implications 8
TLMS: Transportation Land Management System
SRBC: Susquehanna River Basin Commission
DRBC: Delaware River Basin Commission
WMC: Watershed Management Committee
PECO: Philadelphia Electric Company
Word Count: 1890 words
Legislative Approach Taken to Control Waste Water in South Korea and the United States of America
The rising necessity for cleaner water among the citizens as well as the environmental associations and organizations is the reason behind their demand for improvement of safety in the water sources. Such sources include lakes and rivers, coastal beaches as well as the groundwater as evident for some time. It is for this reason that it is necessary to put measures in place to control waste water. The same has however attained reconfirmation for all the countries of the European Union.
It is, therefore, necessary to make a juxtaposition of the river management practices in both the United States and South Korea as a way of learning about multi-stakeholder conflicts and how there are resolved under different policies. Such comparison, however, permits an evaluation of conflict resolution so as to produce the best delivery of safe water particularly drinking water. Dispute resolution facilitates sustainability in the management of river basins regardless of different policy and cultural situations (Lazarus 2003, p.59). Two South Korean Cases can be reviewed as well as two United States cases. They include the Han and Nakdong Rivers then the Susquehanna River Basin Commission respectively. The essay will seek to clarification in terms of conflict resolution, river basin management, and sustainability.
The Basin of Han River
The number of people around the basin is close to 24 million. The river has the largest basin coverage in the entire South Korea and consists of three provinces. From 1993 to 1998, the government invested to enhanced improved quality of water. However, quality proceeded to be a serious challenge.
As the government put strategies in place on improving the water quality, they said that they could no longer agree with the additional regulations and their movement of opposition gained strength. They proceeded to forcefully stop the hearings that the government prepared.
The government devised its special strategies through a collection of opinions from various groups. Upon the settlement of the dispute, the Committee concerning the policy of water management could take in special measures. The decision was also made to implement TLMS chronologically to minimize pollution while accommodating the need for regional development.
The similarity in the case of River Han River and that of Nakdong is that the disputes and confrontations can be resolved via continued cooperation and dialogue between the shareholders. Major deviation between them is TLMS implementation. Strategies of River Han is made up of a system that is voluntary while those for Nakdong River comprised of a mandatory TLMS. Such difference resulted from the fact that strict rules were already in place in the Han River Basin. TLMS, the Riparian Buffer Zones designation, and strong control measures on land use enhanced the preservation of Han River Basin. Security of ecological viability was achieved while equity and economic coexistence between both the downstream and upper users institutionalized via water usage charges as well as communal support projects.
The Basin of River Susquehanna
The river is the largest and lies throughout the U.S. its flow is into the Atlantic Ocean. It consists of a number of square miles of watershed including some regions of Maryland, and New York. It also accounts for about a quarter of the freshwater supplier for the Chesapeake Bay. The U.S. Congress established the Susquehanna River Basin Commission (SRBC) to enhance coordination of the state as well as the efforts of the federal water resource (Swartz 2013, p.20).
The Baltimore City established a structure to enhance intake in the year 1966 at Conowingo Pool. The city from then only utilized Conowingo only continually at the periods of drought as well as low flows (SRBC Conowingo Information Sheet). The issue continued until the time the city intended to expand the utilization of Susquehanna River water. They, however, had to seek approval from the commission. The policy was clear that no project destroying water resources could be carried out without the submission of the plans as a way of seeking approval to the SRBC. Disputes continued until March 30, 2000, when the federal judge made a ruling in favoring SRBC (SRBC Press Release). Despite the ruling, Baltimore pleaded to the Court of Appeals of the United States. Both sides, later on, agreed in July after which the commissioners of SRBC made an approval to the settlement on 9th August 2001.
Due to the approval of the settlement, Baltimore received an authorization to remove some amount of water for use within his region of service. In the course of low flows, Baltimore was restricted to about 64mgd daily and a peak one day rate of 107mgd. As well, the city imposed restrictions on customers. The implication here is that the SRBC drought rapid strengths calms intact with the settlement (SRBC Settlement Agreement). Baltimore has to mandatorily do a number of water conservation strategies as a consequence of the agreement. The settlement attested the authority of SRBC to control the diversions and withdrawals of Baltimore City (Ott 1991, p.1986). The city was however offered long-lasting assurance concerning the accessibility of water from River Susquehanna.
Resulting from the conflict, both the merits and demerits are encountered from this conflict. The city of Baltimore will increase its use of the water from the river which implies possible diminish in the flows to the Chesapeake Bay. On the other hand, the strategies for water conservation offer ecological peace (Lazarus 2003, p.59).
The Nakdong River Basin
The facilitation of quality water here is an essential issue affecting not only the people but also the industries. Geography has it that it is the longest river in South Korea that flows through two large cities and two provinces. The central government came up with a comprehensive management plan in the year 1992 to enhance improvement in the quality of the water in the river though it experienced challenges in the reconciliation of the fundamental strategies.
With the increase in industrialization from the 1970s, the water quality in the river declined. Gyeongsangnam Province and Busan City as result brought in potential measures to facilitate water quality improvement. The issues in the 1990s included the water quality one and Wichon Industrial Complex. To resolve them, the Ministry of Environment started setting up strategies. Besides the challenges, an agreement was reached via a thorough negotiation. The conclusion of the comprehensive plan was done under the covenant between the up and downstream regions in the year 1999.
Charges on water uses have been levied as a way of securing revenue for improvements regarding water improvement and the support of upstream society. The designation of the buffer zones has been done in the upstream region to do away with pollution from the development of unregulated land use. Despite all that, the users within areas of water source management are exempted from paying for water usage charges (Campbell, R.J. and Turnbull, G.K 2003, p. 25-27). A Watershed Management Committee (WMC) was set up to effectively facilitate the imposition and collection of water charges.
The case of Nakdong showed that it was hard for the government to settle disputes between the societies by use of institutional policies and solutions. The solution that would work effectively was too politically dangerous to be with one of the sides due to the resistance from the other. Despite the challenges, a resolution was finally found after several meetings. Light could then be seen at the end of the tunnel as the two communities had the common goal of restoring the dying river. The measures that were taken have proved to be successful in the provision of compensation for the upstream sacrifice and equity (Wang, Y.D., Lee, K.Y., Byrne, J., Smith Jr, W.J., & Wozniak, pp.139-142).
The Delaware River Basin
Resulting from high populace density along the river, about 0.1 of the United States population relies on obtaining water for drinking from this River Basin. Considering the number of stakeholder interest that are in existence throughout the watershed, it is common for the Delaware River Basin Commission (DRBC) to get into a dispute with either the advocacy groups, local citizens, or both.
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission gave the permit for construction to the PECO. PECO represents Philadelphia Electric Company (PECO). The permit, however, contained the contingency for cancellation of water from River Delaware and its transportation with the utilization of conveyance lines. DRBC's approval of an institutional approach of the Neshaminy Water Resources Authority River Basin Management happened in the year 1981. Approval of PECO's application for projects also happened which was a representation of the last approval for the establishment of the conduits, pumping stations, and the water treatment facilities.
The approval of the pleasant point pumping station sparked off an environmental unity to act against the suggested projects. The suggested release of water from the river resulted in anger. However, one of the portions of the project mostly competed for was basically the utilization of a negative declaration to accept a project. The citizens used the dispute to provoke the efficacy of the permissions from DRBC as they had the belief that the negative proclamation showed the DRBCs inability to provide an up to date environmental Impact system. NWRA in the year 1984 ceased the project. However, the supporters of the ceased project filed a lawsuit to get the construction agreement implemented then the establishment resumed. The issue later on became sorted out in the year 1987 after the judges ruling about the agreements as fine and thus commanded the establishment to recommence.
With the support of the legal action struggles, the base attained environmental declaration as safe then upheld DRBCs resolution to permit the project establishment. The erection, however, resumed and a number of demonstrators arrested for acting against the ruling of the court that illegalized disturbances at the sites of construction. The County Commissioners of Bucks sold the final outcome upon completion.
Despite the fact that particular portions of the model WE3 were already dealt with in...
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