How Did Colonizers Attempt to Establish Power in North America? - Paper Example

Paper Type:  Essay
Pages:  4
Wordcount:  1066 Words
Date:  2022-08-10


The history of colonization of North America spans over several decades and involves different European powers. The journey began with the Vikings and continued to colonialization by the English, which all laid a foundation for the Independence of the United States of America. Other players included France and Spain. The centuries of colonization are a culmination of the scramble for control, both politically and economically with the aim of manifesting the destiny of North America. The paper aims at analyzing how the colonizers tried to establish control and discuss the tools they used. Additionally, the paper will examine whether the methods used derailed or contributed to their success,

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Colonization by Spain

In the article, "Arrival of Cortes and Malintzin in Atlihuetzyan," history introduces a woman by the name of Malintzin who facilitated the Spanish conquest of Mexico. She acted as an interpreter and an advisor to the then conquistador, Hernan Cortes. She was well versed in the two languages Mayan and Nahuatl. Despite the military ability of the Spanish, it was Malintzin linguistic ability that helped the Spanish conquer Mexico. Additionally, her diplomatic skills helped her in convincing the Indians that fighting against the Spanish, who were significantly armed with metallic weapons and big ships was a lost course. Consequently, due to Malintzin diplomatic skills, Cortes was only forced to battle on just one more instance.

Aztec empire was the economic hub of North America, with trade and agriculture being the main economic activities. Aztec farmers grew all types of crops both for local and the city needs. The primary crop was corn, but also beans, avocados, tobacco, and hemp were still grown in primitive ways. The trade was essential for the growth of the empire with over 60,000 people visiting their markets. The kingdoms affinity to trade extended to medicine, wood, jewelry carved from silver and gold. Everything a person needed could be easily purchased at the Aztec marketplace. These large transactions facilitated the growth of the empire, and the colonizers fought to take over the economic haven.

Malintzin was among a group of slaves given to the Spaniards in the early 1500's after Chontal Maya was defeated in battle. She was beautiful and gracious and stood out quickly among the other slaves. Cortes then later presented her as a gift to a member of the expedition, who soon left leaving Malintzin under the care of Cortes, who saw her value in the ability to translate for the local people. Malintzin ability to communicate between the Spanish and the Indigenous people eased the colonization of Mexico and made the transition much more manageable. It led to the success of the expedition by forming a coalition with the local people, rather than going to war. She had mastered the art of speech and connected with the tribes on a cultural aspect. The tribe of Nahua respected her as a noblewoman who spoke rhetorically, yet formally and with much conviction. This helped Cortes take control of Aztec empire, a region of gold and silver mines.

Colonization by the French

The great French cartographer, Guillaume de L'Isle created the Map of Louisiana and the course of the Mississippi River. He was famous for the accurate representation of maps around the world. The map indicated Louisiana territory as well as the course of the Mississippi River. Moreover, the map showcased the Indian tribes in existence as well as the forts, towns and mining sites in the region. The mapping was essential to outline the commerce routes with Spanish Mexico.

Up to late 1700, the French colonized Louisiana. The French-led expeditions in the area and established forts and settlements. They also engaged with the locals by enticing them with gifts and thus formed a political and economic relationship with the Native Americans, with the aim of establishing a profitable entity. Though the French were ultimately unable to achieve these goals, a lasting impact in the region was felt. The era began with a voyage with Rene-Robert and Cavalier de La Salle and named the area Louisiana after the king. The French later decided to fortify their rule in the region in the late 1600's by establishing a functioning colony.

However, several mistakes were made which derailed the success of the French. First, it was difficult to find a suitable location for a port along the Mississippi. However, Iberville located a channel suitable to accommodate the ships, and a fort was erected in Biloxi Bay. The fort acted as the operation base while the French conducted further exploration into the area. Despite the temporary success, different challenges arose that ultimately led to the decline of French power in North America. Environmental changes experienced caused massive heat waves which killed the crops, diseases became rampant, and clean water was inadequate. The growing problems and boredom resulted in the formation of resistance movements. The French plans for the Mississippi region were rendered futile.

Before the Seven Years' War in Europe, the enmity between French and British began two years prior in Louisiana as the locals sought out the help of the British to help conquer the French. This led to the famous Indian war. The British were successful in many instances due to the help of the local communities. The French on the other side were experiencing few shocking annihilations in Canada, and they had to surrender the capital which opened a channel for the conquest of Louisiana. The defeat was thus inconceivable. Also, Stressed relations with the nearby Natchez Indians, notwithstanding, at last, prompted the settlement's downfall. The French oppressed the Natchez and mishandled their friendliness. At the point when French authorities in 1729 requested land that incorporated the White Apple Village, a stately holy community for the Natchez, the Indians resolved to stand firm. After the Treaty of Paris came into full effect, the French was formally outstated from Louisiana in North America. The treaty gave Britain both Canada and the East of Mississippi. The west bank, which included New Orleans, remained with the Spaniards who had acquired it prior.


In conclusion, North America was an area of interest for many colonizers, and they all engaged in different tactics, which succeeded and failed in some instances. The Spaniards attribute their success to having a translator while the French were less diplomatic in their ways which led to constant battles among the locals and the English men which ultimately led to their demise.

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