Education is a crucial priority to have knowledge-based society employment, and economic perspective in all this process, quality teaching must be assured to facilitate the desired development. The purpose of this study that grounded qualitative is to identify the quality of teaching in Kosovo and transnational agencies (QTKA). The country's history is complicated.it has a dynamic, unique subject that shapes development and security challenges. A century ago, Serbia was in control of Kosovo (Krasniqi, 2019). Still, the conflict of ethnicity broke out in 1991, resulting from the conflict communities of Albanian descent experienced grave atrocities forcing the international community to end the campaign that was violent by intervening. However, after the war, Kosovo had its government made of international political actors and local whose role was Kosovo attaining independence declaration in 2008. Becoming the newest nation in Europe and the world's second most modern nation after being reorganized by the united nation.
Nowadays, the political system country is fragmented, leading to negative enormous development agenda impact. As the political class in the institution of the state put the interest of the public last and their interest is given priority resulting in a social order to save the economy. Kosovo is a fledgling country; its tumultuous past makes the country to be in transition (Saqipi, 2019). Inflowing aid as the development of the country has been in progress for almost two decades as a way to develop social and move post-war. Kosovo is among the poorest countries in Europe, with half of the population being unemployed. At the same time, the estimation of one third is poor and has a low purchasing power and annual per capita. Air pollution is also an acute problem attributed to transportation and coal extraction, which is the primary source of energy. The situation causes lung cancer, and cardiopulmonary which result to hospital admission, new cases of chronic bronchitis, emergency visits annually and premature death the damage in aggregate can be linked to Kosovo GDP annually despite healthy measures as green environment initiative despite having a lower approval. Kosovo's level of the education system is of poor quality. It is characterized by weak infrastructure and institutions; hence it is yet struggling to equip learners with skill and knowledge in line with labor market demand leading to high unemployment specialized private sectors. USAID, UNDP, SDG, and OECD ranked Kosovo bottom third among 72 countries that participated in the PISA test. The reason behind the poor performance is linked with the outdated practices, traditional education system, limited capacities financially and professionally in the system of education in Kosovo at the same time delays. In support materials and preparation of curriculum implementation and a lack of textbooks suitable for teaching and learning. Since the year 2000, the donor-funded program has been used in developing and supporting the sector of education. To date, donor –funding is a significant part of the Kosovo financing education program.
Agencies such as the EU, World Bank, UNESCO, OECD, and UNESCO contribute to the implementation and design of the curriculum framework (KCF) in Kosovo. It is adopted by the ministry of education, science, and technology in 2011 (Saqipi, 2019). The government established a training program and accreditation system to offer teachers licensing and service training to build professionalism among the teachers and incentivize teachers to act as an appraisal for their performance. UNICEF was put in charge of education system assessment and to facilitate subsequent reforms. The shift need was as from the centered content, and traditional education into a learner-centered and more contemporary education with the system introduce emphasizing the establishment that is democratic. The transition was significant as it demanded changes affecting the new teaching method and the modern technique of assessment of education changes. It can be successful without involving the beneficiaries such as school administrators, student and teachers process of implementation, and review of curriculum as collective responsibilities of the education sector key players.
An approach of top-down was used in Kosovo; it failed to demonstrate the intention and understanding of the effective changes proposed on the teachers' side, whereby the expert international took the leading role as reform architects (Gjelaj et al. 2020). Best practice and policy combination from different countries was the benchmarking strategy. The new reform, although found out involvement was inadequate on stakeholder groups who were the majority, as training teachers was insufficient as well infrastructure was inadequate (contents including facilities). Throughout the process, the system burden remained by high student number, lack of opportunities to develop professionally, and insufficient background for the teachers. The result was processed with weak reforms overall. Hence there is a need to introduce (QTKA) as borrowing policy merely leaves behind the symbolic new curriculum enactment hence not rhetoric.
Quality of Teaching in Kosovo Official Documents
Institutions in Kosovo are still in adjustment as studies are theoretical, practical, laboratories, and industrial related. Theoretical research is insufficient as the learning is not adjusted with the practical examination. A survey on representation accordingly indicates schools invocations are 13.3% mixed and 0.5% in trade while 23.9% music,13.6% medicine, and 1.1% art (Gjelaj et al. 2020). As illustrated, there is less efficiency in the job market and economic endeavors. Kosovo has taken the initiative of creating high-quality teaching and education by the high professional education institution (IAP). To address the financial gap as a result of education professionals' capacity to enhance with the strategy to ensure the country can offer quality professionals in the future years.
Education sustainable development (ESD) can be a tool to be used to propel quality teaching in the institution in Kosovo. As well it will help to achieve harmonious co-existence to the nation that was faced by war as well able to meet the global requirements (Zabeli et al. 2019). With standards ensuring teaching and learning are centered on students' active role to enable them to adjust to student-teacher flexible learning. Primary level grade 1-9 challenges need to be addressed amicably alongside 10-12 class the high school where the student will be equipped with practical knowledge as compared to theoretical knowledge. So that the student will be employable as they have the quality of education required for the jobs of their choice.
Historical Influences in the Quality of Teaching
Education in Kosovo is linked to political and historical developments. For many years, Kosovo was politically unavoidably influenced, whereby education was accessible to only a few due to tight regulation by the Serbian regime (Von. et al. 2020). To save the situation, the Serbian hand a parallel system whereby personal houses served as university and schools. Due to the condition, learning and teaching were of a low quality than usual. The working environment for teachers was characterized by limited resources, low pay, and political instability. The regime also considered education to be illegal. Anyone involved in education activities could be arrested and jailed. As a result of international community intervention, hope for better education was restored to the Kosovan. The 2000 development in education aimed to bring out the post-conflict societal development with all the effort on multi-ethnic society development and cultivating an environment where co-existence among people was enabled. The education system in post-2008 was majorly aimed at resource enhancement and providing facilities to boost the quality of education by infrastructure improvement and building and improving on school conditions. Kosovo made education a national priority whereby all effort was geared towards high standards of achieving excellence. In 2011 the national level approved the curriculum framework, which brought about the competence approach based among teachers in the learning and teaching process. Teachers empowered to come up with a syllabus to ensure quality learning.
Policies and Best Practices for Quality of Teaching
Kosovo formal education is structured on eight levels based structure where the highest level is grade eight, and the lowest level is grade one.pre- the university education sector is the largest and estimated to serve 20% of the population the order of the other junior classes are as follows (1-5) lower primary school, (6-9) lower secondary school,(10-12/13) upper secondary school. Following the Kosovo statistic agency (2016) report, there are 1046 smaller secondary and primary schools, 13033 classes, respectively. Elementary school is 51% of the types. The law provides for the governing of professional bodies, staff, and school as in law on pre-university (law Nr.04/l-032, 2011). The secondary school and the primary school community in Kosovo consist of an administrator, board of directors, student council, professional consultant, technical staff, and parent council. School board is the highest school governing body based on (law Nr.04/l-032, 2011) the school board serves in decision making as well as advisory schools function. Some numerous conditions and factors need to be considered when evaluating the quality teaching practice in Kosovo, whereby both the historical and political factors take center stage.
Kosovo's change of education system is imperative and necessary to suit the post-war political and social conditions. The recovery process is as a result of effort on financial support and commitment to planning to overcome the challenges (Gilbert & Pratt-Adamas 2020). For decades Kosovo has been in the quest to improve education quality in the country. With the help of international peacekeeper, the country is considered to have made significant development in terms of political order, education progress, and responsibility is taken by people to establish an institution. During the post-war time, Kosovo enjoyed benefiting from different projects and opportunities from reputable organizations international who provided donations (Sylaj & Sylaj 2020). The performance of students in the school has raised controversy on education implementation reforms. All stakeholders need to be evolved in the process to achieve a good education practice as school is not only for the children but for society as well. As a result, policies should not be taken as a quick measure but a collaborative approach to making it user friendly to the people respecting the circumstances and local culture of the people in totality to avoid false clarity.
Ministry of education science and technology (MEST) in Kosovo is obligated to take necessary steps to improve the quality of education and ensure sound and smooth learning process in the institution in Kosovo (Gjelaj et, al 2020). Implementation policy implementation may seem more natural from the organization and technical aspect but different from a social perspective. Embracing western values and philosophy in the education system is not a good idea for Kosovo as the local content will degrade and lose meaning. Figuring out the local content is the culture and way of life for Kosovo for many years. .
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