Fascism is a dictatorial form of leadership where the opposition faces oppression, and the government wholly controls the people. The term fascist developed in the early twentieth century with the rise of Benito Mussolini. Mussolini is regarded as the principal founder of fascism in the world since he was the first person to create a fascists movement in Italy. The idea regarding fascism or dictatorship was widespread across Europe at the end of World War I. Nevertheless, it is interesting that fascist movements were only successful in Italy and Germany, as they failed in other democratic nations. Mussolini formed the first fascist movement in 1919, and this was known as the Fascist Party. It is through the creation and success of the Fascist Party that other regions in Europe and other parts of the world also started created similar formations. For instance, the Nazi Party, which was formed by Adolf Hitler, is yet another example of a fascist movement that operated around the same time. Therefore, the paper will provide an analysis on some of the reasons why the fascist movements failed in other European nations but succeeded in Italy and Germany. For instance, it would be essential to state that Italy and Germany were facing economic crisis, thus the reason why people needed a change in leadership. Moreover, the paper will also discuss the use of military force and violence in Germany and Italy.
Reasons Why Fascism Succeeded in Italy and Germany but Failed in Other Democratic Countries
Social Class Discrimination
Social class discrimination in Italy and Germany is one of the main reasons why fascism movements managed to become successful. First, it is essential to note that Britain and France are some of the democratic countries that managed to overpower fascism from flourishing. One of the main reasons why democratic nations such as France managed to bar the development of fascism is that they had class equality. Arguably, most people in Britain and other countries were satisfied on matters regarding economic class, hence the reason why there was little rebellion against the government. The leadership in democratic nations understood the importance of providing everyone with access to public resources. Therefore, it is because of this satisfaction that the people would not need the rise of any other power. Contrary, the case is different with Germany and Italy, which were facing issues with social class discrimination. For instance, Italy is one of the nations that suffered after the end of World War I because of inequality. Arguably, social class inequality was a matter of concern since some regions had better development for others. For instance, it was possible to note that northern and central Italy was more developed than the southern parts. The existing inequality in Italy is what promoted Mussolini to form the Fascists Party to fight for social class equality. Many people from the low class believed that Mussolini was interested in fighting for their rights, hence the reason why they wholly supported the movement.
Subsequently, the Fascist Party would grow to an influential movement since there were more poor people than the wealthy in Italy. Those who came from low class believed that they would better the situation in the country by supporting the Fascists Party. It is possible to argue that the ideas of the Fascist Party in Italy were populists, and that is the reason why they attracted many people. One of the notable arguments that Mussolini provided is that he wanted to recreate Italy to ensure that it recaptures the image of the former Roman Empire. Germany is yet another nation that had successful fascism, and that is also because of social class inequality and discrimination. Germany was involved in World War I without a proper plan, and that is the reason why they were defeated. Moreover, the defeat created more problems since Germany had to pay for the damage. Therefore, this means that the country would later face an economic downfall, and the low-class citizens are the ones who were affected. The subsequent increase in poverty is yet another reason that promoted Adolf Hitler to form the Nazi Party. The Nazi Party had a similar approach to the Fascist Party, which intended to better the economy. Therefore, the Nazi Party also received massive support from the people to ensure that it grows to the top. The details of this analysis indicate that it is because of social class issues that the fascist movements managed to prosper in Germany and Italy. Most of the other European nations had a better economic organization, hence the reason why they did not face any opposition to the government. The reality regarding the rise of fascist movements in Italy and Germany is that many people had high hopes for better governance, but they were disappointed at the end.
The Dismantling of Democratic Institutions
The move to dismantle democratic institutions is yet another factor that led to the rise of fascism in Italy and Germany but failed in other nations. The existence of democratic institutions in France, Britain, and other European countries played an essential role in barring the development of fascism for different reasons. First, it is because of the democratic institutions in these regions that the government had to follow the right procedure in handling everything. For instance, the nations have a constitution which is the legal document that guides everything. However, the rise of fascism meant that the leaders could no longer follow such rules. The democratic institutions had an interest in ensuring that order is maintained in these countries, hence the reason why they fought for the people's rights. Subsequently, it was impossible for fascism to flourish in democratic countries.
Nevertheless, the dismantling of democratic institutions in Germany and Italy played an essential role in ensuring that fascism flourishes. Mussolini, who was the founder of fascism, is the one who developed the idea of dismantling all democratic institutions. It was after earning authority as a prime minister in 1922 that Mussolini thought that the democratic institutions were no longer crucial. The main argument that was provided by Mussolini is that the democratic institutions slowed down development in the country. For instance, it was common for democratic institutions to call for the need to follow law and order before the implementation of any rule. Contrary, Mussolini thought that it was better to make the final decision without engaging other parties. Therefore, the dissolution of these democratic institutions contributed to the rise of fascism in Italy and Germany since the leadership could not be cautioned on various issues. The existence of democratic institutions in any country means that the opposition gets the power to question actions taken by the government. The reality is that granting the opposition power to speak up means that everyone is enjoying their freedom of speech. Nevertheless, the opposition is one of the notable democratic institutions that was dismantled in Italy and Germany. The main idea of the fascists' movements is that the opposition should remain suppressed. While Mussolini was the first one to come up with these ideas, Hitler also applied similar tactics in Germany. Hitler, who led the Nazi Party in Germany, admired Mussolini's success after dismantling the democratic institutions.
There are many reasons why fascism would have also failed to flourish in Germany and Italy, were it not for the dismantling of the democratic institutions. For instance, democratic institutions would have alerted the people about the existing corruption in the government. The same citizens who supported the rise of the fascist movements would have also opposed the idea if they knew the reality. Most Italians and Germans only supported the fascism movements since they thought that they cared for their concerns. The Holocaust that happened in Germany is yet another example of an action that proves the lack of democratic institutions in the country. While the constitution protects everyone from bias, the Jews were tortured and killed during the Holocaust, thus proving that no one could address their rights. The advantage of democratic institutions is that they sensitize the public about their rights and how the government is handling the country. Furthermore, it is crucial to state that democratic institutions remain essential even in the modern world. There is a lot of information from the constitution that the citizens in many countries do not understand, but the democratic institutions inform them.
Germany and Italy Had Received Bad Deals in the Treaty of Versailles
The details of the Treaty of Versailles is also a reason why fascism prospered in Germany and Italy while it failed in other democratic nations. Notably, it was important for the allies and the axis powers to enter into a deal, which would ensure the end of World War I. Therefore, the Treaty of Versailles is the one who provided the required details, but they would later influence the development of fascism in these nations. Whereas the Treaty of Versailles favored Britain, France, and America, it was wholly against Germany and Italy. Mussolini was one of the first people who argued against the Treaty of Versailles. Notably, Mussolini believed that Britain, France, and America had earned good deals during the treaty, thus blaming their Italian authorities for their weaknesses. It is from this animosity that Mussolini encouraged the citizens to revolt against the government for failure to secure Italy's good deals during the Treaty of Versailles.
However, Germany is one who suffered most during the Treaty of Versailles, and the reality is that it influenced the rise of fascism. The first agreement in the treaty was that Germany was supposed to pay France and Britain for the damages caused during the war. Subsequently, this would harm Germany's economy since they had to spend a lot to settle the debt. The decline in German's economy is one of the main factors that contributed to the rise of the NAZI Party, which represented fascism. The leader of the Nazi Party, Hitler, made the people to believe that he was the one who would better the nation, hence the reason why they had to oppose the current regime. The citizens supported fascism since they believed that Germany needed a tough leader who would have an influential representation in such treaties. Second, the Treaty of Versailles also stripped Germany its colonies, and that is yet another reason why the nation experienced a rise of fascism. Whereas Germany was controlling a number of colonies across the world, the treaty thought that it would be better to have it stripped because of the misconducts in the World War I. The citizens also thought that it was because of poor representation at the treaty that led to Germany losing its colonies. Subsequently, the people would prefer supporting fascism by the Nazi Party, as they believed that it would ensure that they earn back their colonies.
The Treaty of Versailles also barred Germany form making any weapons. While other world powers such as Britain and America still had the right to engage in the making of firearms, Germany was stripped all these rights. The main argument that developed after this agreement is that Germany was exposed to its enemies, as they could no longer protect themselves in case of an attack. Nevertheless, Hitler was harsh speaking and had promised the people that he would recover Germany's prestige if he managed to earn the top leadership position. Arguably, Germans also had an interest in continuing to make weapons, which would make the country influential, he...
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