Essay Sample on Mastering Sequencing: Unlocking Text Comprehension & Memory

Paper Type:  Research paper
Pages:  7
Wordcount:  1682 Words
Date:  2023-04-04


Sequencing is an essential skill in enabling learners to master the art of text comprehension and memory. Sequencing allows the learners to quickly identify the three major components of a story, namely the beginning of the story, the middle of the story, and the end of the story. Sequencing enhances the ability of learners to recount the occurrence of events within a story in the exact order in which these events occurred (Oakes et al. 2020, p. 2). For my project, the primary objective is to raise the literacy levels of fourth-grade elementary school learners drawn from various backgrounds. Increasing the literacy levels of this group of learners enhances their adaptability to different learning conditions, chiefly being a change in instructors or learning environments. Such flexibility increases the acclimatization rates of these students hence promoting their educational development in a highly diverse and changing educational environment. The appropriate learner-related sequencing for this group and the objectives is the independent reading strategy. As the name suggests, this approach enables learners to establish independence in learning new concepts through the identification and comprehension of text and stories (Oakes et al. 2020, p. 8). To facilitate independent reading, learners are availed with blank pieces of paper and pencils, which they can use to note down essential aspects of stories such as page numbers and notable names or words. This approach enables the learners to recall the components of a story, thus promoting independent learning and adaptability.

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Instructional Strategies by Learning Objectives

As identified earlier, the principal objective of this project is to raise the literacy levels and to learn the independence of fourth-grade students. This objective is broken down into cognitive, behavioral, and affective facets. This requires a meticulously tailored instructional learning strategy that factors the socioeconomic and intellectual diversity of the targeted learners. Foremost, an effective instructional strategy should achieve four primary goals (Boardman et al. 2016, p. 409). First, the approach should actively engage learners in the learning process. Secondly, the method should help learners in educational goal transition. Third, the method should cater to the learning styles and needs of every learner. Finally, an instructional strategy should assist learners in nurture their independence hence produce a whole learner able to thrive in every learning environment.

Based on the above facts, and considering the audience and content for my project, the three appropriate learning strategies include cooperative learning, behavior management, and differentiation. The collaborative instructional approach entails the use of group or whole-class activities to actively engage students with varying learning abilities in the learning process. Cooperative learning involves the use of methods such as science experiments done in groups (Boardman et al. 2016, p. 411). Through group work, every learner is accorded an opportunity to contribute equally to group success. Grading for group tasks is done collectively for all members rather than individually. Cooperative learning hones a learner's communication and critical thinking skills as well as self-confidence. Through collective ownership of group achievements, learners can develop personal responsibility for learning as well as independent learning. Cooperative learning nurtures the behavioral and cognitive facets of this project (Boardman et al. 2016, p. 423).

Behavior management is essential in nurturing a whole learner who is capable of effectively reaching their learning goals and objectives. The main aim of behavior management is to deter maladaptive behaviors by encouraging positive behavioral outcomes in learners (Meyer & Ray, 2017, p. 151). Such can be achieved through approaches such as a discipline and reward chart for the fourth graders. In this approach, the learners are 'ranked' on a chart based on their discipline and respect, with the most disciplined and respectful learner(s) ranking at the top of the table. Learners move up or down the chart, depending on their behavioral adjustments (Oakes et al. 2020, p. 11). This instills positive behavioral outcomes in the learners, thus enabling the development of learners with suitable behaviors for adaptation to any learning environment. The token economy can also be used as a model to enhance behavior management as an instructional strategy.

Differentiation involves the allocation of learning tasks and activities based on the individual learning abilities of every learner. Differentiation ensures that all learners are effectively engaged in improving their cognitive skills progressively (Boardman et al. 2016, p. 417). Differentiation does not merely mean giving more straightforward tasks to learners with lower learning capabilities. It instead requires the meticulous planning of learning activities so that weaker learners are allowed to work on their skills and gradually match their academically stronger counterparts. An effective differentiation method is the setting up of various workstations with tasks of varying complexity reflecting the cognitive diversity of learners. The learners are allowed to freely pick the tasks they undertake, with the guidance and supervision of the instructor (Meyer & Ray, 2017, p. 137). This way, the instructor can help weaker learners to strengthen their academic capabilities in line with the cognitive facet of project objectives.

Instructional Strategies by Learner Analysis

The learners for this project are fourth-graders drawn from various ethnicities, and with varying cognitive abilities. The learners are also of different ages. Therefore, concerning the learner analysis, an appropriate instructional strategy should aim at recognizing and upholding learner diversity (Meyer & Ray, 2017, p. 127). The approach should also foster the dispensation of knowledge to raise the literacy of learners of uneven cognitive abilities. In this regard, multisensory learning, modeling, and the use of graphic organizers are handy instructional strategies. In multisensory learning, the instructor helps the learners to learn using by applying more than one sense. The learners may simultaneously utilize multiple senses such as sight, hearing, and touch to decipher the contents of learning. This method helps to reinforce learning and promote the memory of concepts learned in class. Multisensory learning is useful for young learners in cementing their educational foundation (Meyer & Ray, 2017, p. 141). Fourth graders are young learners; hence, regardless of the age differences within the class, they are bound to raise their literacy levels through multisensory learning.

Modeling entails the learners learning to perform tasks based on what the teacher does. The teacher and the learners take turns in performing various tasks such as arithmetic and sculpturing (Oakes et al. 2020, p. 11). First, the teacher performs the task while the learners carefully observe. Secondly, the teacher and the learners collectively perform the task, with the teacher actively guiding the learners about the task. Thirdly, the instructor lets the learners do the task by themselves while s/he supervises. This approach is also called the "I Do, We Do, You Do" model. The model is useful for learners of varying cognitive abilities such as the fourth graders under study (Oakes et al. 2020, p. 9). The approach fosters uniformity in learning for learners with different cognitive capabilities.

On the other hand, graphic organizers provide a visual tool for the organization of classroom concepts. Through graphic organizers like flow charts and Venn diagrams, learners can establish connections between various classroom tasks. Graphic organizers are especially helpful to academically struggling learners who need visual tools to reinforce concepts and enhance learning and academic adaptability (Boardman et al. 2016, p. 425).

Delivery Strategies

However, well, the learning content and instructional strategy are tailored; it cannot achieve its intended results if it is not delivered the right way. Based on the instructional objective of raising fourth-grade learners' literacy levels through cognitive, behavioral, and affective modulation, the appropriate delivery strategies include student engagement and proper pacing during delivery (Meyer & Ray, 2017, p. 134). By actively engaging the students in lesson delivery, the instructor confers independent learning and critical thinking to the learners, thus enabling the students to be adaptable learners with higher literacy levels. Appropriate pacing demands that the teacher should neither be too fast nor too slow in delivering content to the children. As such, every learner is catered for during lesson delivery (Oakes et al. 2020, p. 7). The teacher is also able to determine the level of understanding of the concepts taught to learners. This boosts the content retention ability of learners.

According to the instructional context, culturally responsive teaching and active learning are essential delivery strategies for the fourth graders. Culturally responsive delivery acknowledges the impact of culture in shaping the perceptions of children on various classroom concepts (Meyer & Ray, 2017, p. 129). Teachers should aim at delivering content in a culturally tolerant manner to avoid aggrieving any faction of the culturally diverse learner population. The teacher should also encourage and cherish diversity by equally involving all learners in content delivery. Active learning engages the learners in content delivery through methods like song, drawing, writing, and recitation. Such an approach makes content delivery more lively and exciting for young learners of varying cognitive abilities.


The instructional strategies discussed above focus on both the learner and the content. The instructor is an essential vessel in connecting the learner to the content. As such, these instructional strategies can be well reinforced by the case and discussion strategies of content delivery (Oakes et al. 2020, p. 4). The case method of delivery involves the translation of classroom content into simplified real-life applications of knowledge. For the fourth graders, the case method can include the transformation of the context of a story or text to a situation at school. This application of knowledge to real-life nurtures the critical thinking abilities of these young learners. Unlike the case method, discussion strategy uses group and whole-class discussions of content to reinforce the delivery of content (Boardman et al. 2016, p. 410). This strengthens memory and critical thinking in the learners.


Boardman, A. G., Vaughn, S., Buckley, P., Reutebuch, C., Roberts, G., & Klingner, J. (2016). Collaborative strategic reading for students with learning disabilities in upper elementary classrooms. Exceptional Children, 82(4), 409-427. Hyperlinked

Meyer, B. J., & Ray, M. N. (2017). Structure strategy interventions: Increasing reading comprehension of expository text. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 4(1), 127-152. Hyperlinked

Oakes, W. P., Cantwell, E. D., Lane, K. L., Royer, D. J., & Common, E. A. (2020). Examining educators' views of classroom management and instructional strategies: school-site capacity for supporting students' behavioral needs. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 64(1), 1-11. Hyperlinked

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