Essay Sample on Inequality and Inequity in Education

Paper Type:  Essay
Pages:  5
Wordcount:  1230 Words
Date:  2022-11-05


Sociology of education is a discipline that involves analyzing the educational processes and practices with the guide of the sociological theories, research methods, and sociological perspectives (Andre-Bechely, 2013). Similarly, sociology of education tends to study both the internal and external issues affecting the education system in relation to society. One of the main aims of sociology is to explore the social relationships and interactions between two or more variables affecting a particular system. By so doing, the social roles a particular factor plays in influencing the society either in positive or negative ways can be established. In the education setting, Sociology of education analyzes how social factors affect the education system and how education, on the other hand, affects the society. For instance, sociology of education often addresses issues such as social stratifications, socialization, social mobility, equality and equity about the education system. Through the analysis of better strategies for solving sociological issues affecting the education systems are established to attain a long-lasting solution to achieve internal efficiency in the education system.

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Sociology primarily aims at promoting equity and equality in education (Kenway, 2013). However, attainment of this goal from the ancient days has been a challenge thus leading inequity and inequality in the education system. Kenway (2013) asserts that equity in education is the entitlement of equal educational opportunities to all the students who are willing to access educational opportunities or high-quality education. On the other hand, educational inequality refers to the imbalanced distribution of educational resources in the education system of a particular state. Some of the cases of education inequality include unequal distribution of funds in schools, learning materials like books, the education institutions in the society and even unequal distribution of teachers. Equally cases of inequity in the education systems include school segregation and discrimination based on the social background of the learners (Kenway, 2013). For instance, a student from a financially stable background being given educational priorities to study in prestigious schools while those from the low economic background are forced to study in unequipped local schools since they can't afford the fee. Furthermore, the students from low background may find it hard to study since they cannot afford resources like a book while the others have to access both books and the internet.

Educational inequality and inequity have many negative impacts than benefits in society. Firstly, inequity in education negatively affects the physical health of the learners since they are always highly stressed as they try to learn without resources (Routledge Ford, 2014). In other instances, education inequity hinders learners with high academic ability from attaining their academic goals. Some schools favor a particular gender, race and even religion regarding admitting students to the school, such as a form of inequity. Consequently, inequality in education results in social stratification and social mobility in society. This further results in poor academic performances in schools which have few resources like teachers and books. Therefore, addressing the issues of equity and equality in education results in a balanced society since education is social and should equally serve the needs of every person in society.

To address the educational equalities and inequity affecting both the internal and external efficiency of education, various strategies must be put in place. Firstly, the main cause of social inequality in the education sector is the unequal distribution of educational resources (Andre-Bechely, 2013). Hence, to solve this challenge, education resources like books, teachers and funds should be evenly distributed in all schools. At a large extent, this will address not only issues of education inequality but also inequity since the no learner or educational institution will have an advantage over the other. Nevertheless, policies should be formulated to equalize all school so that students with the low socio-economic status can get access to higher education through sponsored supplementary tuition fees. When all students have equal access to education, both the society, the parents and the students themselves will benefit. The students will be entitled to good academic results which lead to the attainment of better job opportunities hence, improved living conditions. Equally, equity and equality of education lead to a balanced development of social infrastructures like schools and better learning centers. These, in turn, reduces social stratification and enhances social equality through the equal promotion of education.

The Conflict theory propagated by Karl Marx, states that the conflicts in the society are as a result of disagreements, disharmony, and disorders (Gallo, 2013). The rise of conflicts is always geared by unequal distribution of economic resources and the struggle to attain individual desires like power, wealth and opportunities in the society. Similarly, education is faced with many forces in society. Some of the forces include political and economic forces which result in conflicts in the education system. According to Gallo (2013), the education system is a delicate system since it direct depended on other systems in society hence such conflicts may result in the inequality in education. Historically, allocation of educational resources has always been motivated by political factors. Evidently, schools located in areas with a majority of political representation in the government receive a lot of resources like books and teachers (Kenway, 2013). Similarly, students from a stable economic background are entitled to better education. However, the conflict theory asserts that education should accommodate the views and needs of all people to minimize conflicts in society. Therefore, when the resources are distributed equally in all educational institutions, the performance and achievements of learners will be equal thus minimizing inequality and inequity in education.

To solve the problem of inequity in education, it is vital for schools to give learners equal opportunities regardless of their socio-economic status. This all the learners' equal chances to access to education. Furthermore, some schools admit students based on gender thus enhancing inequity in education. Therefore, formulation of policies to ensure both male and female students have equal chances in the acquisition of education. Segregation in schools should also be abolished, and an unformed curriculum implemented or all schools. Equally, there should be an equal distribution of resources to enable all schools and students access adequate learning and teaching resources.

Some of the practical strategies for combating this problem includes enhancing cooperation between the state and the education systems. This will reduce conflicts arising due to political and economic reasons thus enhancing equity in the education sector. On the other hand, the education ministry should set up uncompromised thresholds which creates equity in the education system. Some of those policies may include the same curriculum for all schools, equal school entry requirements for all the learners and equal resource distribution. These strategies not only result in internal efficiency in the education sector but also external efficiency thus benefiting the society at large. When resources are equally distributed, the society will be entitled to better education and educational infrastructures. Other spillover benefits of education include reduced crimes, high literacy levels in society and better living standards which results in economic development. Therefore, equity in education results in a balanced economic society.


Andre-Bechely, L. (2013). Could it be otherwise?: Parents and the inequalities of public school choice.

Gallo, G. (2013). Conflict theory, complexity, and systems approach. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 30(2), 156-175.

Kenway, J. (2013). Challenging inequality in Australian schools: Gonski and beyond. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 34(2), 286-308.

Routledge Ford, D. Y. (2014). Segregation and the underrepresentation of Blacks and Entwisle, D. R. (2018). Children, schools, and inequality. Routledge.

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