Management theories and practices are essential tools for the successful running of businesses and organizations. They underscore tools like guidelines and methods that can be implemented in modern organizations. Professionals would introduce diverse concepts from various management theories that are suitable for their company culture and workforce. The correctional system underscores three models of management. This authoritarian model exists only in local jails and can host a minimal number of inmates, the bureaucratic model that encompasses the state prison system and the participative model that underlies its usage in federal prison. Authoritarian models are used in correctional systems that are managed by a CEO or a correctional officer who is mandated with full charge and authority over the entire organization. The three management models are therefore adequate for the correctional settings as they form the basic foundations of people that make regulations and gui9dings that are pertinent to the correctional environment and prisoners as they encompass federal laws of custodial detention and implementation of justice.
They encompass leadership ion scenarios where fat decision making is required, and the person is appointed in advance to take control. Team members are required to follow the orders without question. They are also needed in predestined processes where they have to complete tasks in a specific request by the use of the predefined methodology. The intended goal of the correctional administration in using this model is to ensure is the representation of power, ensuring of obedience by the subordinated without question and getting the job done. In the correctional facility, the authoritarian leader is tasked with the maintenance of the smooth-running ng of operations as he oversees and directs each individual with the required role. The strict model of management in prisons was developed ion the 19th Century penology in both practice and theory (Glantz, 1981). Its significant characteristics was a system of arbitrary that was centralized to one-person rule, the prison warden and took almost a century to implement and is still yet to be completed in other prisons. Authoritarian model is useful in the correctional facilities since it helps in the pore dispositioning of inmates, coupled with their propensity to acceptance of the official policies and programs of the correctional facility (Grusky, 1962).
The authoritarian model has the advantages of reducing the time needed for decision making, consistency in results, clarity within the chain of command, boosts of productivity, and minimizing mistakes within the correctional facility (Miller). It also has advantages of causing rebellion among employees, creation insecurity within leadership, impairing the groups' morale, creation of overreliance on the experience of one leader, lack of feedback and elimination of innovation within the correctional facility. This model is prevalent in jails and is headed by the correctional officer.
Bureaucratic model of management in a correctional unit underscores a way of organizing the prison staff and wardens in means that there is a clear relationship in reporting from the top management to the bottom. The correctional unit uses the process since it encompasses differentiation into departments, and each department is tasked into performing its functions according to too the units' objectives. Its use is applicable in the correctional unit since it juxtaposes specialization and people with more expertise to handle correctional units. This model was developed also developed in the 19th Century as it tended to take the place of the authoritarian model (Glantz, 1981). In the quest of beaurocratization prisons, the state's governors and; legislators demanded the formulation of rules, principles and regulations to rationalize the correctional practice and policy. The system was active during that period as it involved decentralization, diffusion and atomization of power of the inmate community in the quest of achieving control. The system is still useful in the correctional facilities to date as it ensures smooth governing and organization in the correctional facilities. The correctional facility is operated under the model since the bureaucratic model provides clear hierarchies, high degrees of formalities and rigid divisions of labor, coupled with strict policies that have severe consequences to that e who disobey the system. That is relevant in the correctional facility as there is hierarchical channelling of information from the top warden to the bottom and rules are formulated to ensure justice and fairness among prisoners.
The model has the advantages of creativity within the bureaucracy, provision of job security. It discourages favoritism, centralizes power, encourages specialization and its vis smoother to fit in in the model. However, it also has flowed, as it leads to poor financial management, decrease the morale of the employee's autonomy for the employees. It reduces opportunities for quick adaptations to changes as well as creating a massive wage gap. This model would be useful in the c criminal justice system and the prison systems since it delves on the virtues of justice and fairness by the top rank official like the judges and administrators in the correctional facilities.
This model delves on the assumption of the complexity of criminality the limited impacts of prison inmates in terms of their reformation, medical models and their poaerticipatruo9ns in decision making. The intended goal of the correctional administration in the use of this inmates' participation in decision making so that they become responsible for themselves, the prison society as well, as acting responsibly in the nation when discharged (Murton, 1979). The participative model was developed in the 19th Century, and it was effective at that time since it was i9nvented to effect change in the prison environment that required restructuring in the inclusion of inmates ion the decision-making process (Bloomberg, 1977). The model is still valid since the inmate subculture is relied upon for the successful intervention in the prison settings, together with ensure ng staff/inmate relationship in conjunction with the staff and inmate coalition. Under this model, the correctional facility is operated in the realms of shared decision making among administrators, inmates and staff in the quest of reducing tension and stress among inmates as well as polarization between inmates and staff (Baunach, 1981).
This model has the advantages of increased productivity following the shared decisions making, reduction of tension and polarization among prisons, good working relations between inmates and prison staff, positive growth among inmates and provision of a conducive environment among inmates for the development of a sense of responsibility (Baunach, 1981). However, it has its flaws like decision making may be slow owing to a vast majority of decision-makers. Also, it may be prone to security issues since too many people may be aware of vital information, it may also lead to misunderstandings participation besides abuse of authority among the inmates. The correctional models where this model may be useful is the prisons and the courts since they may require a conducive environment for the inmates together with the development of a sense of responsibility.
The correctional systems encompass three models of administration. This authoritative model underscores one-person rule to get the work done. This bureaucratic model ensures hierarchies in administration with coordination from top management to the bottom. The third one is the participative model that juxtaposes the shared decision making among administrators, staff and inmates that ensures a conducive environment for the inmates.
Baunach, P. (1981). Participatory Management-Restructuring the Prison Environment.National Criminal Justice Reference Service. Retrieved fromhttps://www.ncjrs.gov/App/Publications/abstract.aspx?ID=765729
Bloomberg, SD. (1977). Participatory Management. Toward A Science CorrectionalManagement. Wiley Online Library. Retrieved from DOI .10.1111/j.17459125.1977.tb00058.x
Glantz, L. (1981). Towards a Concept Scheme of Prison Management Styles. PrisonJournal.41 (2):pp.42-50.Retrieved fromhttps://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/Abstract.aspx?id=82461
Grusky, O. (1962). Authoritarianism and Effective Indoctrination: A Case Study. AdministrativeScience Quarterly. 7 (1): pp.79-95. Retrieved from DOI:10.2307/2390634.
Miller, K. (2020). Advantages and Disadvantages of Authoritarian Leadership Style. Future ofWorking. Retrieved from https://futureofworking.com/15-advantages-anddisadvantagesof-the-authoritarian-leadership-style/
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