Ideally, the accumulation of solid waste pollutes the environment. Pollutions that results from poor disposal of waste causes diseases and reduces the beauty of the physical environment. The scenario of Kano metropolis shows the need for community participation in municipal solid waste management to reduce the pollutions that result from the accumulation of solid waste in the environment. The volumes of waste generated in Kano increases each year with the increase in the population of the inhabitants. Ideally, the management of solid waste is one of the problems facing cities in developing countries. In the 21st century, the developing countries are battling a losing battle with solid waste management. The solid waste generated in the Nigeria is approximate 2.2 million tons (Babayemi, and Dauda, 2009. It is anticipated that as the population of the country increases, the volumes of solid waste increases as well. This proposal seeks to explain ways of enhancing public participation in the municipal solid waste reduction as in the case of Kano. Kano state is the leading urban area in North Nigeria in the volumes of solid waste. The problem of solid waste management is one of the major problems facing most towns in developing countries. However, enhancing community participation in solid waste management helps regulate pollutions that result from the waste disposal (Agunwamba, 2003). Ideally, the problem of solid waste management is in Kano has different stakeholders which range from public, government to the international donors. The source of the issues is that the increasing volumes of solid waste are beyond the capacity of the government to handle. Essentially, the awareness regarding the effects of improper solid waste disposal is high yet the public participation in the task is minimal. In the last decade, the government agencies are showing the interest to involve the public in the solid waste management to improve the efficiency of the practice.
Background of the problem
The poor solid waste disposal in Kano has the attentions of the government, international donors, and the public. It is apparent that the household cannot decide how much they will consume hence the volumes of solid waste cannot be regulated. It is apparent that the involvement of the community in solid waste management is a functional strategy in developed countries. However, the lack of public participation solid waste management in Kano is a challenge that makes solid waste management and ineffective practice. The rate of population growth rate in Kano raises worries on the future of municipal solid waste management in the areas. It is apparent that government cannot effectively handle the increasing volumes of solid waste without the participation of the public. The Kano metropolis has large volumes of solid waste hence is facing the problem with solid waste management
The best approach to the problem facing Kano is to undertake an assessment to understand the sources of the problem regarding the solid waste management (Babayemi, and Dauda, 2009). It is prudent to understand the factors that hinder the efficiency of the solid waste management in developing countries and to understand how developing countries can overcome the challenge. The perception of the public in the issue of solid waste management, the willingness of the public in the solid waste management and the expectation of the public counts in strategizing to sensitize the public regarding the essence of participation in solid waste management. It is apparent that some externalities contribute significantly in the inefficiency regarding solid waste management in Kano and other residential areas in developing countries (Babayemi, and Dauda, 2009). The example of externalities that contributes to the menace includes the perceptions that the municipal solid waste management is a free service, the implication of cultural and religious belief and the lack of trust between the public and the government.
The proposal seeks to address the problems that hinder community participation in municipal solid waste management. The case of Kano estate is important in this case following the fact that it is one of the urban settings in Nigeria facing the problem of inefficient solid waste management. In this case, the proposal attempts to explain the reason why public awareness can promote the public participation in the municipal solid waste management. The community participation in the solid waste management has proved to be the most effective strategy to improve the methods of solid waste disposal and management. It is therefore, sound to look for ways to ignite the public to participate in solid waste management. In the past, developed countries used group discussions and holding meetings in towns to trigger community regarding the agency of solid waste management. In this proposal, different methods will be discussed regarding how best the efforts of the public can be triggered to help in the management of solid waste in major residential zones.
Solid disposal is a problem facing most urban centers in developing countries. Kano state is one of the urban centers with large volumes of solid waste and improper waste disposal. The factors that impede community participation in solid waste management include religion, cultures, and lack of trust in the government (Agunwamba, 1998). The citizens in developing countries believe that municipal waste management is not their responsibilities. As a result, the lack of community support on the solid waste management reduces the efficiency of the waste disposal and management. The community wariness on the importance of their participation solid waste management is lacking in Kano. The proposal seeks to present arguments and way to improve community participation municipal solid waste management. The raping increase in the volumes of solid waste in Kano calls for the need for sensitizing the citizens for their participation in the practice of solid waste management.
Aims and Objectives
The proposal seeks to present ways to enhance community participation in solid waste management. The proposal will recommend effective methods to enhance community awareness and their respective participation in solid ways management. The proposal will also present the methods of solid waste management that have been used successfully in different countries in the world.
The problem of municipal solid waste management result in the rise of volumes of solid waste generations, lack of public participation in solid waste management and the inability of the government to handle large volumes of solid wastes (Babayemi, and Dauda, 2009). The mismanagement of solid has negative impacts public health and the beauty of the physical environment. The lack of public participation in solid waste management makes the work difficult for the government. The public produces waste products and disposes of them carelessly with the considerations of the harm it causes to the public. There is an external cost associated with the generation of waste that compromise with the health of the public.
The poor waste disposal causes air and water pollutions. As a result, the public suffers from disease breakout such cholera and typhoid. Ideally, it is important to realize that it essential to involve the public in the management of solid waste because they are victims of the negative consequences that result from the mismanagement of the solid waste. It is evident that the public cannot regulate the amount of food they consume neither can they regulate the amount of waste they produce (O'Connell, E.J., 2011). The situations of solid waste management are worse when the community do not understand their contribution to the solid waste management. Besides, individuals in most cities in Nigeria do not pay for waste collection and disposal. One can conclude that the public does not feel the pain of disposal waste carelessly at their personal levels. The daily activities in the household contribute to the rise in the volumes of solid waste generated. However, the increase in the volumes of solid waste generation does not attract extra cost from the public. Ideally, the public should the pain of the marginal cost by paying some cash to cater for the extra waste generation. Essentially, the environmental, social and health marginal cost the public need to pay for the extra waste generated to trigger their participations in the solid waste management. The active participations of the public in solid waste management is worth because they suffer the consequences of poor waste disposal.
The negative consequences of poor solid waste management on the public includes an outbreak of diseases, lack of aesthetic value of the environment, water, and air pollution. The public should participate in the management of waste because the consequences have a direct health implication on the public (Agunwamba, 1998). The connections between religious practices and cultural issues prevent the public from understanding the effects of pollutions on the lives of the public. Most people believe that factors such as diseases and deaths are wraths of God. As a result, the deaths caused by pollution are negligible hence, the community participations in the solid waste management is minimal. The cities in developing countries require the awareness regarding the solid waste management and the important of their participation to enhance sound solid waste management. The community participation in solid waste management may the different forms.
The different forms of community participation in solid waste management include participating in decision-making, paying for services of waste disposal, and devoting some time to support the government in handling the limitation (Ogwueleka, 2010). In the past, there has never been a significant participation of the public in solid waste management despite the knowledge about the significance of the public participations. Kano metropolitan has a high population because it is an industrial and a commercial area attracting millions of people. The region has had rapid population growth rate because of migrations and natural increase in the population because of the birth of the newborn (Zurbrugg, and Ahmed, 1999). The gradual growth in the populations in the region is an indication of a further increase in the volumes of garbage in the future. Kano has the highest streams of solid waste with approximate volumes of 1,825000 metric tons in one year (Babayemi, and Dauda, 2009). The resident blames the lack of adequate dumpsite in the region resulting poor waste disposal in the area. It is essential to understand the perception of the public on solid waste management, the existing situation, and the public expectations to initiate sound strategies to ignite public participation in municipal solid waste management.
The aims of this study are recommending for better ways of enhancing public participation in management of solid waste. Ideally, to understand the situation of Kano, the perception of the people and their expectations, there is a need to involve different techniques to realize the goal. First, there is a need to interview residence regarding the cause of limited public participations in the municipal solid waste management in Kano. The government officials on the ground responsible for solid waste management are resource persons regarding the challenges facing their attempt to manage solid waste in the area.
It is also crucial to survey the land to assess the situation of the Kano. It is prudent to understand the view of the public on the situation of Kano. The survey will re...
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