American Indian history is a brief history of persons who were first to reveal and live in America and were called the Native Americas or American Indians. Several thousand years ago in error of Ice age, human being voyaged through the bridge of Bering land, from Asia destined to Alaska. As early as 1000Bc the Europeans had already sheltered the entire continent. It is believed for the archeologist researches that in the 12th BC it was when the first people arrived in America. Over time as the American Indians voyage over the continents, they have developed a wide range of customs, languages, and civilizations (Weaver, Hilary, 24). As time went about 1000 ages ago, when the Ice age error erased, and the environment changed the Native Americans started experimenting on crops growing over time, some became good highly skilled farmers. In the BC Mexico cultivated corn and squash. They also burned off parts of the land for pasture to keep and to grazing animals such as pigs.
Europeans invasions in America began with Columbus voyages in 1492 CE. Their attacks of America brought diseases such as smallpox and measles. These diseases spread out quickly and streaked out the inhabitants of the native cities. Introduction of this disease was a tactical way of colonizing the Native Americans as they had a weak immune system to the conditions and so the European were able to conquer them easily (Spindler and Louise 56). The Europeans had already developed a strong immune, so they could not be affected by these diseases. The European started colonizing the American to plow their farms and to create new occupations for the large and fast-growing population of European. Some of the Native Americans would fight back but due to the effect of diseases brought by Europeans they had to surrender their land to them.
European colonization in North America
Christopher Columbus is the first European to land in North America in 1492CE he believed that he established a new biosphere as opposed to this an old biosphere extensive populated by a development that had come through strait form Bering Strait, many years ago was also in existence before Columbus arrival. Columbus believed to have arrived the East Indies off the Coast of Asia. Due to his geographical misunderstanding, these Native Americans were named 'Indians.' The Native Americans in the thousands of years had developed many cultures also lived there which governed their land (Nobles and Melissa 1645).
When Christopher went back to Spain, he demanded to have found a new route to the east. As a result, Spanish people followed him expecting to get rich resources and Asian silk. Spanish colonies succeeded in Florida, California, Mexico, Central America, and South America. England, France, and Holland also sailed to North America to explore nonetheless did not establish colonies in the 1500s. French trappers settled inland to trap beaver for European marketplaces and make a trade. Also found trade markets for fur from the trappers of Native American and also guided explorers and colonists to claim and settle on land in North America. They decided in Quebec City in North America.
In the early 15BC the Dutch directed fishing boats to North America and Henry Hudson settled on the land along the river which up to date still holds his name (Nobles and Melissa, 1645). The Dutch traders and farmers started settling sideways river Hudson and moved to New Amsterdam, but in the year 1664 England forced Holland out of New Amsterdam and became New York City.
In the late 15BC England had made numerous ineffective tries to set up colonies. In 1607 a secretive company directed a group of English colonizers who landed in Virginia and so-called their town Jamestown after their ruler king. The English had been spending their time exploring for gold instead of planting crops in the Indians farmlands. In 1620 another group of English settlers arrived, these group was looking for riches and wanted religious freedom.
Comparison between the Native Americans and European colonizers
Europeans brought a significant change in the way the Native Americans lived in several ways; they brought new trade goods which represented a great move to Native Americans. For example, in the Columbia Plateau, the members of tribes converged on this plateau and exchanged products such as dried fish from the Columbia; woven bags, baskets, and wild hemp for fish nets from the plateau region. After the Europeans created settlements in the southwest and established relations with the tribes on the west coast plus northeastern plains, this influenced lesser amounts of European goods. Goods such as small pieces of knitted cloth glass beads and metal goods such as kettles, jewelry, and axes originated to Indian hands from Russian merchants on the coast.
Indians became very interested with things that the European colonizers provided. The Indians would use the Europeans new materials and items in their daily lives. Native Americans would hunt and gather before the Europeans came but later influenced and could now trade with them by selling their deer hides and other pelts for clothes.
According to Stoler and Ann Laura (843), the European brought diseases to the native Indians such as measles and smallpox. The Europeans had developed a healthy immune system in their body towards these diseases. Hence the Native people of Americas were the once profoundly affected. This disease wiped and killed most of the American Indians and made them inferior in resisting the new ways impacted by the colonizers. This lead to the demographic disaster of unpredicted proportions. Many of these epidemics were presented and in existence before the arrival of Christopher Columbus. Also, before the arrival of Europeans in America, there were no indigenous weeds, seed, and animals. The Europeans hence introduced seeds, plants, diseases, and animals which transformed the original biological and social landscape on America's land. The rapid decline of the American Indian people and the increasing need for labor by Spanish settlers led to the introduction of the slave trade in 1518.
According to Washburn and Wilcomb (254), Slave trade brought significance exploitation of human being by the Europeans settlers. The first epidemic disease to attack the Native Americans is believed to have been the swine influenza which originated from the West Indies in 1493 with pigs that Columbus had obtained from the Canary Islands on his second voyage. These epidemics are estimated to have swiped the Indians population by 90% as a result of virgin- soil epidemics.
European also had weapons and horses which overpowered the Native Americans while the Naive Americans had bow and arrows in their battles.
Causes of European to colonize America
Several European countries followed Christopher Columbus to America in search for new trade routes to Asia. These countries ended up colonizing North America in for several different economic reasons. France colonized North America in search of furs that they found there during their trip. They traded with the Indians for the exchange of furs which they sold to their country for a high price making a lot of money.
Dutch from the Netherlands were great businessmen (merchants), and they built a large city in America and called it New Amsterdam today known as New York City. The first business to be done here was the fur business, contrary Britain colonized America for timber goods which they used to make ships. They found cheap timber in North America hence they had to subjugate the Native Americans for wood (Stoler and Ann Laura, 850).
The Europeans also colonized North America in search of gold. During their exploration, they fought the Native Americans and took their gold. Besides, they also were searching for a market to sell their goods.
European countries had the same motive to take to North America that is missionaries this was a religious reason. The goal of these missionaries was to convert the Indians to Catholic Christianity, contrary colonizers from England, i.e., Puritans were fleeing from their country to escape the prosecution from England, and so they settled in New England and created a religious utopia where everybody would live by the Puritan rules of the bible.
Impacts of European colonization in America
European settlement in America had various effects on the Native American heritage. These colonial impact on the Native American people started afterward years of interaction and trading. Religious changes came about to the Indians people. This was visible when the Native Americans began to believe in the myths such as creation stories that demanded the Native Earth had created dissimilar people of color in contrast to those Indians. Other associates of the Creek tribe said that it was due to the creator incomplete making the colonizers, and she created the rest peoples as brown similar to the Natives; thus, these explained the color differences between the two nations. These beliefs come with the Europeans missionaries who had impacted a lot on the Indians cultural beliefs (Fixico and Donald, 33).
In the 17th century, Native Americans found that they were so dependent on European goods purchased on credit. Due to this debt of outstanding products, the Native Americans had to give their land to cover their obligations and through this led to slowly colorizations. Colonial settlements increased, and the Europeans were no longer interested in the Indians trade and far and were more engaged with acquiring the land by all means possible. One of the methods the European used to purchase the property was converting the Indians to Christians through the missionaries. Tribe such as the Cherokee voluntarily turned.
Introduction of disease such smallpox measles and the plague. This is some case was done deliberately to achieve cultural domination and to help reduce their resistance as the colonialists knew that there was no innate immunity against the diseases. These diseases killed most of the Native community in America and hence the Europeans found it easier to colonize them. The Europeans themselves had developed an excellent immune system. Therefore, they were resistant to these diseases.
In addition to the impacts of colonialization, European overtook the Native Americans cultural dominion. According to Pewewardy and Cornel (30), they used several strategies for example children were forbidden to use their Native language while conversing. This was a plan to eliminate any trace of their original language and culture. They also separated the children to boarding schools with an aim to reduce parental stimulus and also reduce chances of them surviving in the community.
Introduction of slavery. The Europeans introduced the slave trade due to a need for workers in their farmlands of tobacco and sugar. This need led to increasingly on Africans. The growing slave trade with Europeans had a profound on the people of West Africa which gave prominence to local chieftains and merchants who traded the slave trade for European textiles, alcohol, guns, tobacco, and food. This slave trade exploited most of the Native and African people which is the negative impact. In Northern South America, Mexico, and, Central America the Indians were required to be farmers and workers in the hands of Spanish rule.
Environmental changes. The Europeans in North America impacted countless changes in the environment which affected the Native animal and crops as well as people. The introduction of weapons from the Europeans led to overhunting of beaver in the northeast. Beavers became instinct in New England and New York. Also, the European introduced pigs in the Indians which were allowed into the forage in the forest which deer and...
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