Assignment Example on Sport Psychology

Paper Type:  Questions & Answers
Pages:  25
Wordcount:  6673 Words
Date:  2022-08-04
  • 1. Which one of these organizations is sport psychology?
    • a. Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology
    • b. North American Society for Sport Psychology and Physical Activity
    • American Sport Psychology Association
    • d. All the above
    • e. A. and b

Answer: A and B

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  • 2. The most reliable way to get knowledge is
    • a. Introspection
    • b. Intuition
    • c. Shared experience
    • d. A single case study
    • e. Systematic observation

Answer: Intuition

  • 3. Usually, educational sport psychologists have many years of experience.
    • a. Psychology
    • b. Education
    • c. Exercise science and sport
    • d. Sociology
    • E. Educational psychology

Answer: Sport and exercise science

  • 4. Which explanation(s) explains the gap in sport psychology research-to practice?
    • a. There are very few forums that allow practitioners to share research results.
    • b. Emphasis on laboratory research in the 1960s & 1970s
    • c. The 1980s field experiments are highlighted
    • d. All the above
    • e. A. and b

Answer: A and B

  • 5. The knowledge gained from working in the exercise and sport science fields is called
    • A. Empirical knowledge
    • b. Professional practice knowledge
    • c. Scientific knowledge
    • d. Professional knowledge
    • e. Theoretical Knowledge

Answer: Professional Practice Knowledge

  • 6. ________, the first president of International Society for Sport Psychology, is credited with much of the international development of sport psychology
    • A. Franklin Henry
    • b. Dietmar Klein
    • c. Yuri Hanin
    • d. Ferruccio Antonelli
    • e. Gershon Tanenbarum

Answer: Ferruccio Antonelli

  • 7. Scientifically derived knowledge has the greatest strength:
    • a. Validity
    • b. Reliability
    • c. Importance
    • d. Social Impact
    • e. None

Answer: Reliability

  • 8. Zajonc's theory of social facilitation predicts that
    • a. An audience facilitates performance on well-learned tasks
    • b. An audience facilitates performance on novel tasks
    • c. An audience can hinder a person's performance on a well-learned task
    • d. An audience does not affect performance
    • e. Performance is increased on novel and well-learned tasks presented in front of an audience

Answer: An audience facilitates performance on well-learned tasks

  • 9. Which of these journals are exercise and sport psychology journals?
    • a. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology
    • b. The Sport Psychologist
    • Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
    • d. All the above
    • e. A. and C

Answer: All the above

  • 10. A researcher's approach to a problem would be more effective than a practitioner's.
    • a. Systematic
    • b. Controlled
    • c. Empirical
    • d. All the above
    • e. A. and B

Answer: All the above

  • 11. Which one of the following is not a method for knowing?
    • a. A single case study
    • b. Introspection
    • c. Rationalalism
    • d. Systematic observation

Answer: Rationality

  • 12. First and foremost, sport and exercise psychology are a part of a healthy lifestyle.
    • a. Science
    • b. Art
    • c. The applied field of study
    • d. Lab-based field of study
    • e. None

Answer: Science

  • 13. Professional practice knowledge is the strength of professional practice.
    • A. Holistic Nature
    • b. Innovative contribution
    • c. Scientific validity, reliability
    • d. All the above
    • e. A. and B

Answer: A and B

  • 14. What successful coach is known for using a sport science approach to coaching?
    • a. "Doc" Counsilman
    • b. Robert Rotella
    • c. Jim Thorpe
    • d. Casey Stengel

Answer: "Doc" Counsilman

  • 15. Science's ultimate goal is
    • a. Prediction
    • b. Description
    • c. Explanation
    • d. Control
    • e. Theory

Answer: Theory

  • 16. Coleman Griffith was a coach and athlete for the following athletes and coaches:
    • a. Red Grange
    • b. Knute rockne
    • c. Dizzy Dean
    • d. Babe Ruth

Answer: Babe Ruth

  • 17. Which of these issues will sport and exercise psychology be facing in the future?
    • a. Consulting in sport psychology by unqualified persons
    • b. There are few full-time jobs in sport psychology that involve consulting with athletes.
    • c. Physical education and exercise specialists are needed to obtain sport and exercise psychology information.
    • d. All the above
    • e. A. and C

Answer: All the above

  • 18. American sport psychology's father is
    • A. Coleman Griffith
    • b. Rainer Martens
    • c. Dan Landers
    • d. Dan Gould
    • e. Robert Singer

Answer: Coleman Griffith

  • 19. Which of these events didn't occur in period 5?
    • a. The Journal of Sport Psychology was founded
    • b. The Olympic committee employed the first full-time sports psychologist.
    • c. The Sport Psychologist journal was founded
    • d. The licensure standards for sport psychologists were established
    • e. APA Division 47 was created

Answer: The licensure standards for sport psychologists were established.

  • 20. This is the most reliable way to gain knowledge.
    • a. Introspection
    • b. One case study
    • c. Systematic observation
    • d. Scientific method
    • e. Shared experiences

Answer: Scientific method

  • 21. It is necessary to actively apply knowledge about sport and exercise psychology
    • a. Keep up-to-date with your scientific knowledge base
    • b. Be realistic about the limitations and strengths of scientific principles
    • c. Applying scientific principles to your professional practice
    • d. All the above
    • e. A. and B

Answer: All the above

  • 22. Three roles are available to sport psychology specialists. These are:
    • a. Teaching, research, consulting
    • b. Teaching, administration, consulting
    • c. Administration, research, and teaching
    • d. Teaching, intervention, research

Answer: Intervention, teaching, consulting and Teaching, research, consulting

  • 23. Some limitations of scientifically derived knowledge include that it is not always reliable.
    • a. Is reductionistic
    • b. It is very easy to evolve
    • c. Is conservative
    • d. All the above
    • e. A. and C

Answer: A and C

  • 24. Which one of the following statements (are) true
    • a. Sport psychology is a discipline that focuses on elite athletes' concerns.
    • b. Sport psychology is a discipline that focuses on young athletes competing in competitive sports.
    • c. Sport psychology actually deals with both exercise and sport settings
    • d. Sport psychology is focused on recreational athletes
    • e. None

Answer: Actually, sport psychology deals with both exercise and sport settings.

  • 25. The environment and the personal makeup of the performer influence behavior. This is an example of a
    • A. Cognitive-behavioral orientation
    • b. Behavioral orientation
    • c. Cognitive-affective orientation
    • d. Psychosocial orientation
    • e. Cognitive-environmental orientation

Answer: Social-psychological orientation

  • 26. Which of these events was NOT observed in the period 6 (2000-present),?
    • a. Psychology of Sport and Exercise journal published in Europe
    • b. The American Psychological Association's Division 47 focuses on sport psychology.
    • c. Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology was established
    • d. A, and C
    • e.B and C

Answer: The Association for the Advancement of Applied Sport Psychology was established

  • 27. Which of these researchers was NOT prominent in the period 1 (1895-1920?)?
    • A. EW Scripture
    • b. GT Patrick
    • c. Norman Triplett
    • d. R Cummins
    • e. Ed McAuley

Answer: Ed McAuley

  • 28. What professional association in sport psychology is responsible for developing standards to certification individuals who work in applied sport psychology?
    • a. North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity
    • b. International Society of Sport Psychology
    • c. Association of Applied Sport Psychology
    • d. American Psychological Association Division 47
    • e. Applied Sport Psychology Society

Answer: Association of Applied Sport Psychology

  • 29. Landers' research with his colleagues using biofeedback techniques for elite marksmen to shoot between their heartbeats is an excellent example of a successful experiment.
    • A. Cognitive-behavioral orientation
    • b. Cognitive-affective orientation
    • c. Behavioral orientation
    • d. Psychophysiological orientation
    • e. Physiological-environmental orientation

Answer: Psychophysiological orientation

  • 30. Which of these is NOT an American Psychological Association general ethical principle?
    • a. Social responsibility
    • b. Integrity
    • c. Scientific and professional responsibility
    • d. Individualization
    • e. Competence

Answer: Individualization

  • 31. Sport psychology saw a remarkable growth in the fifth period.
    • a. Theoretical development
    • b. Applied research
    • c. Professional services
    • d. A, and B
    • e.B and C

Answer: B and C

  • 32. What type of question does NOT fall under the "what effect do psychological elements have on an individual’s performance?" category?
    • a. Is self-confidence a factor in a child's ability learn to swim?
    • b. What does anxiety do to a tennis player's ability to serve accurately?
    • Is running a good way to reduce anxiety and depression?
    • d. How can punishment affect an individual's motivation for continuing to participate in sport?
    • e. How does concentration impact performance in fine motor tasks

Answer: Is running a good way to reduce anxiety and depression?

  • 33. An example of an anxiety disorder is test anxiety
    • a. Trait measure
    • b.Measurement of a situational-specific trait
    • c. Situational-specific state measure

Answer: Measurement of situation-specific traits

  • 34. Which one of the following statements regarding exercise and personality is true?
    • a. Exercise and self-concept have a positive relationship
    • b. Regular exercise has been shown to be associated with changes in Type A behavior from Type B behavior.
    • c. Exercise participation is strongly linked to social self-concept
    • d. A, and B
    • e. A. and C

Answer: Exercise and self-concept have a positive relationship

  • 35. You can better understand your personality by understanding the following:
    • a. Be a good communicator
    • b. Be an informed consumer
    • c. Perform personality tests with athletes
    • d. Be a good observer
    • e. Take into account both personality traits as well as states

Answer: Take into account both personality traits as well as states

  • 36. Morgan's mental-health model and the implications of his "iceberg profile" have been criticized in research.
    • a. Only a small portion of athletes' performance variation can be attributed to the iceberg profile.
    • b. The iceberg profile does not distinguish between athletes and non-athletes.
    • c. The Profile Of Mood States (POMS), is not a reliable test
    • d. A, and B
    • e. A. and C

Answer: A and B

  • 37. Morgan created the _______ model in order to explain the relationship between personality-mood state and athletic success
    • a. Normative
    • b. Mental health
    • c. Psychological skills
    • d. Psychopathology

Answer: Mental health

  • 38. This is not an example of a situation-specific sport inventory.
    • a. Group Environment Questionnaire
    • b. Profile of Mood State
    • c. Trait-State Confidence Inventory
    • d. Competitive States Anxiety Inventory

Answer: Profile of Mood States

  • 39. Morgan was able to predict ______ of the 16 rowers who would eventually make the US heavyweight rowing squad based on only psychological data.
    • a. 5
    • b. 12
    • c. 10
    • d. 14
    • e. 7

Answer: 10

  • 40. The "big five" personality model has been widely accepted in recent years. Which one of these personality factors isn't in the model's five?
    • a. Agreeableness
    • b. Conscientiousness
    • c. Neuroticism
    • d. Extraversion
    • e. Depression

Answer: Depression

  • 41. Which of these guidelines should you follow when administering testing to athletes?
    • a. Explain to athletes the reason for the tests
    • b. Ask athletes to describe the results of the tests
    • c. Give specific feedback about test results
    • d. All the above

Answer: All the above

  • 42. Which of the following questions would an interactionalist researcher ask?
    • a. Are anxious athletes more likely to perform in stressful situations than less anxious athletes?
    • b. Are extroverts more successful than introverts when working in a group situation?
    • c. Are highly motivated people more likely to choose to compete?
    • d. Do children with high self-esteem choose competitive sport more than those with low self-esteem?

Answer: Are highly motivated people more likely to choose to compete?

  • 43. Research into the personality profiles of athletes has revealed that they are different from non-athletes.
    • a. Athletes and non-athletes are not distinguished by a particular personality profile.
    • b. Anxiety levels in athletes are higher than those of non-athletes
    • c. Non-athletes are more introverted as athletes
    • d. At-heletes are more self-confident than nonathletes

Answer: Athletes and nonathletes are not distinguished by a particular personality profile.

  • 44. The weakness of the psychodynamic approach to therapy is its
    • a. Focus on the internal determinants that determine behavior
    • b. Inattention to the social environment
    • c. Solely focus on the external determinants that determine behavior
    • d. A, and B
    • e.B and C

Answer: A and B

  • 45. Personality is viewed from a situational perspective.
    • a. Different people behave in different situations
    • b. Personality traits have a minimal effect on situations that are strong
    • c. If the situation is stable, personality traits will have minimal impact.
    • d. A, and B
    • e. A. and C

Answer: A and C

  • 46. A good example of this is showing a photo of an athlete fighting with an official, and asking them to write about it.
    • a. Objective testing
    • b. Projective Testing
    • c. Multidimensional personality assessment
    • d. Unidimensional personality assessment
    • e. Psychological state-trait inventory

Answer: Projective testing

  • 47. According to research in the psychological literature, nature (ex. genetics) accounts for roughly what percentage of behavior.
    • a. 10-20%
    • b. 20-30%
    • c. 30-40%
    • d. 50-60%
    • e. 80-90%

Answer: 50-60%

  • 48. Which one of the following statements is true?
    • a. Female athletes who are successful differ from non-athletes in personality
    • b. Female and male elite athletes share similar personality profiles
    • c. Female non-athletes are more independent and aggressive than female athletes
    • d. All the above

Answer: All the above

  • 49. Which of these is/are important for administering psychological inventories
    • a. Understanding of measurement errors and testing principles
    • b. Sensitivity towards one's limitations
    • c. Use tests to select team members
    • d. All the above

Answer: All the above

  • 50. Which of these is NOT a level of Hollander's personality structure model?
    • A. Childhood experiences
    • b. Psychological core
    • c. Typical responses
    • d. Behaviors that are related to the role of the ego
    • e. A. and B

Answer: Childhood experiences

  • 51. Interactional approaches assume that
    • a. Behavior is affected by both personal and situational variables
    • b. To determine behavior, personality interacts with the psychological core.
    • c. Highly-aggressive people will, for instance, react aggressively to being placed in an aggressive environment
    • d. A, and C
    • e. A. and B

Answer: A and C

  • 52. Eysenck & Eysenck believe that personality can be understood if you focus on the following traits.
    • a. Neuroticism-stability
    • b. Introversion-extroversion
    • c. Relaxation-anxiety
    • d. A, and B
    • e. All of the preceding

Answer: Neuroticism-stability

  • 53. It is the most superficial and easily modified part of a personality structure.
    • a. Psychological core
    • b. Behaviors that are related to the role of the body
    • c. Role-related behavior
    • d. Belief system

Answer: Role-related behavior

  • 54. Erwin Apitzsch, a Swedish psychologist specializing in sport psychology, has recently applied the psychodynamic approach to sport. His work with athletes led to this new approach.
    • a. The superego
    • b. Protection mechanisms
    • c. Ego development
    • d. Early childhood experiences
    • e. Id-superego conflicts

Answer: Protection mechanisms

  • 55. Psychological testing can be done intra-individually.
    • a. Comparison of individuals to population norms
    • b. The scores of individuals are compared to how they score on a specific psychological inventory
    • c. Individuals are compared with norms for their gender and age
    • d. Individuals are compared using objective and subjective assessments

Answer: The scores of individuals are compared to how they score on a specific psychological inventory

  • 56. The trait approach to personality presumes that
    • a. Different situations can lead to different behaviors.
    • b. Different situations can lead to people acting similarly
    • c. The personality does not change over time
    • d. A, and C
    • e.B and C

Answer: B and C

  • 57. Which subscale is not part of the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory's Athletic Coping Skills Inventory?
    • a. Concentration
    • b. Coaching
    • c. Goal setting
    • d. Imagery
    • e. Freedom from worry

Answer: Imagery

  • 58. Morgan created an iceberg profile. Which of these psychological characteristics are successful athletes typically display above the average of the population?
    • A. Anxiety
    • b. Anger
    • c. Fatigue
    • d. Vigor
    • Confusion

Answer: Vigor

  • 59. How many articles have you published about sport personality in professional sport psychology literatures?
    • a. 100
    • b. 300
    • c. 1000
    • d. 2000
    • e. 5000

Answer: 1000

  • 60. Which one of the following statements is true?
    • a. Participation in competitive sports procedures alters personality structure
    • b. Individual-sport athletes are more dependent than nonathletes and less anxious.
    • c. Team-sport athletes are more independent and introverted than non-athletes
    • d. A, and B
    • e.B and C

Answer: Individual-sport athletes are more dependent than nonathletes and less anxious than the average person.

  • 61. Based on in-depth interviews with Olympic athletes and medalists, which of these mental strategies did they exhibit?
    • a. More positive self-talk
    • b. Additional mental preparation
    • c. Be prepared for unanticipated negative events
    • d. All the above
    • e. A. and B

Answer: All the above

  • 62. Recent research using the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory, (ACSI), has shown that there is a relationship between performance and coping skills. The results have shown that
    • a. A good psychological coping skill helps athletes get the best out of their abilities
    • b. Professional baseball requires that you have good psychological coping skills.
    • c. The ACSO can be used for team selection
    • d. All the above
    • e. A. and B

Answer: A and B

  • 63. Some of the recent research on the relationship between mood and performance has been criticized. Which of these is NOT a recommendation for elite athletes to use mood profiling?
    • a. It can be used to monitor your training load
    • b. It can be used to monitor the acclimatization process
    • c. Use it to predict team success
    • d. Use it to monitor your emotional response to an injury
    • e. It can be used to identify overtrained athletes

Answer: It can be used to predict team success

  • 64. Trait anxiety is ___________ anxiety. State anxiety is ________ anxiety
    • a. General; momentary
    • b. Momentary; general
    • c. Competitive; noncompetitive
    • d. Competitive; noncompetitive

Answer: General; Momentary

  • 65. Which one of these is NOT a reason to start an exercise program?
    • a. Weight loss
    • b. Fitness
    • c. Health factors
    • d. Affiliate
    • e. To feel better

Answer: Affiliation

  • 66. Both internal and external attributions can be linked
    • a. Emotional reactions
    • b. Cognitions
    • c. Expectations
    • d. Behavioral intent
    • e. Self-talk

Answer: Emotional reactions

  • 67. It is the most difficult, but most crucial component of creating sport and exercise environments that meet the needs of an athlete or exerciser.
    • A. Individualizing your coaching or teaching
    • b. Establishing a rigorous training environment
    • c. Choosing the motivational strategy to use
    • d. Balance intrinsic and extrinsic motivation

Answer: Coaching and teaching should be personalized

  • 68. The research of developmental psychologists was the basis for competency motivation theory.
    • a. Tara Scanlan
    • b. Susan Harter
    • c. Thelma H.
    • d. Glyn Roberts
    • e. Albert Bandura

Answer: Susan Harter

  • 69. Which one of the following statements (are) true
    • a. Instead of focusing on the outcome, mastery goals should be used
    • b. Student athletes should be encouraged to give feedback that emphasizes the importance of pointing out their high abilities and hard work.
    • c. Failure should not be seen as a lack of effort but rather as a lack of ability. Attributions should be highlighted after failure
    • d. All the above

Answer: All the above

  • 70. Which of the following statements is true about need achievement theory?
    • a. High achievers are motivated to succeed and have low motivation to fail.
    • b. High achievers love to evaluate their capabilities
    • c. Low achievers are often preoccupied by thoughts of failure
    • d. All the above
    • e. A. and C

Answer: High achievers enjoy evaluating their capabilities

  • 71. What is the most common outcome of a task goal orientation?
    • A. Persistence in the face failure
    • b. Choosing difficult tasks or opposing teams
    • c. Strong work ethics
    • d. All the above
    • e. A. and B

Answer: All the above

  • 72. The Attribution Theory focuses on
    • a. How people explain success and failure
    • b. How do groups explain their personalities?
    • c. How people explain their personality traits
    • d. How people explain their biases
    • e. None

Answer: What individuals say about their success or failure

  • 73. It is crucial to influence the behavior and performance of exercise and sport participants.
    • a. Motivation
    • b. Physiology
    • c. Biomechanics
    • d. Sociological factors
    • e. All of the preceding

Answer: All the above

  • 74. Motivation can be described as:
    • a. The intensity and direction of an individual's efforts
    • b. The direction and breadth of one's efforts
    • c. One's intensity of effort
    • d. Direction of one's efforts
    • e. None

Answer: The intensity and direction one puts into their efforts

  • 75. What are the main situational considerations in need attainment theory?
    • A. Success probability; motivation to succeed
    • b. Probability and incentive value for success
    • c. Motivation for achievement; success probability
    • d. Incentive value of success; pride and shame
    • e. Pride or shame, probability of success

Answer: Probability of success; incentives value of success

  • 76. Motivation is often the result of personal experience.
    • a. Personal factors
    • b. Factors that are specific to your situation
    • c. A combination personal and situation factors
    • d. Previous success stories or failures
    • e. None

Answer: Combination of personal and contextual factors

  • 77. It is important to understand the motivations of students, athletes, and exercisers.
    • a. Watch participants and see what they love or dislike about the activity.
    • b. Talk to other athletes and exercisers
    • c. Ask participants to periodically list their reasons for participating
    • d. All the above

Answer: All the above

  • 78. A sport-specific motivation for achievement is known as
    • a. Competitiveness
    • b. Confidence
    • c. Mental preparation
    • d. Mental toughness
    • e. None

Answer: Competitiveness

  • 79. What type of motivational climate leads to the most adaptive motivational change?
    • A. Mastery
    • b. Performance
    • c. The Outcome
    • d. Decision making
    • e. Attributional

Answer: Mastery

  • 80. Retraining attribute is generally about changing
    • a. Low-ability Attributions
    • b. High-effort Attributions
    • c. Attributions of High-ability
    • d. Attribution of task difficulty

Answer: Attributions to e. Luck and Attributions with low-ability

  • 81. Which view of motivation is most popularly supported by sport psychologists and sports psychologists?
    • a. Trait
    • b. Situation
    • c. Interactionalistic
    • d. Individualist
    • e. None

Answer: Interactionalistic

  • 82. Which of these is NOT a general motivational approach?
    • a. Trait
    • b. Situation
    • c. Individualistic
    • d. Interactionalist
    • e. None

Answer: Individualistic

  • 83. Interactionalist motivation theory argues that motivation is an interaction between which two factors.
    • a. Situation and trait
    • b. Individualistic and trait
    • c. Individualistic and situational
    • d. Personal and Trait
    • e. Individualistic and personal

Answer: Situation and trait

  • 84. The following is the definition of "A disposition to seek satisfaction in making comparisons with the standard of excellence when the presence of evaluative other":
    • a. Motivation to achieve in sport or competition
    • b. Self-esteem
    • c. Self-confidence
    • d. Self-concept
    • e. None

Answer: Motivation to achieve in sport and competitiveness

  • 85. It is inconvenient to define motivation in different ways.
    • a. Motivation is a broad topic that is often hard to define.
    • b. Many practitioners don't realize how motivational strategies inter- and influence each other.
    • c. Extrinsic motivation can be confused with intrinsic motivation
    • d. A, and B
    • e. A. and C

Answer: A and B

  • 86. Which situation is the most motivating for high achievers to engage in achievement behavior?
    • a. 50% chance of success
    • b. 25% chance of success
    • c. 70% chance of success
    • d. 60% success rate
    • e. Chance of success: 10%

Answer: 50% chance of success

  • 87. Competence motivation models _______ and _____ influence perception of competence. This in turn influences affect, motivation, and motivation.
    • a. Feedback; Attributions
    • b. Feedback; Motivational orientations
    • c. Motivational orientations and attributions
    • d. Motivational environment; self-esteem
    • e. Perceived Control; Feedback

Answer: Motivational orientations and feedback

  • 88. A better opponent can motivate an athlete more than she can play against. This is an example of motivation.
    • a. Trait
    • b. Situation
    • c. Interactionalist
    • d. Individualistic
    • e. None

Answer: Situation

  • 89. Which one of the following statements is true?
    • a. Instead of focusing on the outcome, mastery goals should be used
    • b. Student athletes should be encouraged to give feedback that emphasizes the importance of pointing out their high abilities and hard work.
    • c. After fatigue, it is important to emphasize that there was not enough effort.
    • d. All the above

Answer: All the above

  • 90. Which situation is the most motivating for low-achieving people to engage in achievement behavior?
    • a. 50% chance of success
    • b. 25% chance of success
    • c. 75% success rate
    • d. 60% success rate
    • e. Chance of success: 10%

Answer: 50% chance of success

  • 91. Sorrentino & Sheppard conducted a study on swimmer motivation and found that it was high.
    • A. Approval-oriented swimmers showed faster times in the group situation than in the individual.
    • b. Approval-oriented swimmers showed faster times in the individual situation that in the group
    • c. Rejection-oriented swimmers swim faster in relay than individual situations
    • d. A, and C
    • e.B and C

Answer: A and C

  • 92. Which one of the following is not an attributional type?
    • a. Stability
    • b. Causality
    • c. Control
    • d. Persistence

Answer: Persistence

  • 93. Bill is constantly concerned about comparing his abilities to other people's and winning. Bill is a great example of this.
    • A. Mastery goal orientation
    • b. Task goal orientation
    • c. Attributional goal orientation
    • d. Goal orientation
    • e. Achievement goal orientation

Answer: Outcome orientation

  • 94. "Self-competition," refers to _______, while performance in socially evaluative circumstances refers to ____________
    • a. Motivation for achievement and competition
    • b. Motivation for achievement, competition
    • c. Motivation for achievement, social facilitation
    • d. Competition, ego involvement

Answer: Motivation for achievement; competition

  • 95. Which stage is not a step in your development as a competitiveness and achievement motivation leader?
    • a. Autonomous competence
    • b. Integrated
    • c. Social comparison
    • d. Perceived competence

Answer: Competence perceived

  • 96. Motivation can be used as a term in the sport psychology literature.
    • a. A characteristic of the internal personality
    • b. External influence
    • c. The consequence of an explanation for behavior
    • d. All the above
    • e. A. and B

Answer: All the above

  • 97. A great way to influence undesirable participant motivations is
    • a. Behavior modification
    • b. Cognitive intervention
    • c. Rational emotive Therapy
    • d. Cognitive restructuring
    • e. Self-monitoring

Answer: Behavior modification

  • 98. Ability is a (n) __________ or ___________ attribute
    • a. External; stable
    • b. Stable; internal
    • c. Unstable
    • d. Instabile; external
    • e. Controllable, but unstable

Answer: Stable; internal

  • 99. Stable attributions can be linked
    • a. Affect
    • b. Cognitions
    • c. Future state of affairs or failures
    • d. Emotions
    • e. None

Answer: Future state of affairs or future failures: Expectations

  • 100. Which one of these is NOT a major reason to exercise or participate in sports?
    • a. Have fun
    • b. Be with friends
    • c. Enhancing skills
    • d. Pleasing parents
    • e. Developing Fitness

Answer: Parents who are happy

  • 101. Individuals' learned helplessness is the most defining characteristic.
    • A. Attributing success effort
    • b. Feeling that their actions do not have an impact on the desired outcomes
    • c. Attributing bad luck to failure
    • d. Feeling in control of their actions
    • e. None

Answer: They feel that their actions do not have an impact on the desired outcomes

  • 102. According to the catastrophe theory, an athlete must recover from a disaster.
    • a. Relax completely
    • b. Cognitive restructuring can help control your worries
    • c. Controlled activation
    • d. All the above
    • e. A. and B

Answer: All the above

  • 103. Refers to a significant imbalance between demand, response capability and failure risk under circumstances in which failure can have important consequences.
    • a. Arousal
    • b. Sensational Pressure
    • c. Stress
    • d. State anxiety
    • e. Trait anxiety

Answer: Stress

  • 104. Which one of the following statements is true?
    • a. Anxiety is always a debilitating factor in performance
    • b. Higher levels of performance are seen in athletes who see their anxiety as helping rather than hindering their performances
    • c. Intensity of anxiety is more important that its direction
    • d. A, and B
    • e.B and C

Answer: Higher levels of performance are seen in athletes who see their anxiety as helping rather than hindering their performances.

  • 105. It is evident that there is a linear relationship between arousal levels and performance.
    • a. Performance decreases as arousal rises
    • b. Performance decreases when arousal drops
    • c. Performance increases with increasing arousal
    • d. Performance increases as arousal falls
    • e. Performance decreases when arousal performance is above an optimal level

Answer: Performance increases as arousal rises

  • 106. Which of these is NOT a sign of heightened anxiety?
    • A. Profound sweating
    • b. Slow breathing
    • c. An increase in muscle tension
    • d. Inability or unwillingness to concentrate
    • e. Sleeping difficulties

Answer: Slow breathing

  • 107. Refers to a moment-to-moment shift in physiological activation.
    • A. Cognitive state anxiety
    • b. Somatic anxiety
    • c. Activation
    • d. Trait anxiety
    • e. Stress

Answer: Anxiety about the somatic state

  • 108. Both the importance of an event and the uncertainty surrounding its actions are sources of inspiration.
    • a. State anxiety
    • b. Trait anxiety
    • c. Arousal
    • d. Personal Stress
    • e. Situational stress

Answer: Situational stress

  • 109. Hanin's research on the individualized zones of optimal function argues that an athlete must have these areas in order to achieve peak performance.
    • a. A state of optimal anxiety
    • b. A level of trait anxiety that is optimal
    • c. A state of optimal anxiety and other emotions
    • d. A level of arousal that is optimal
    • e. A level of physiological arousal that is optimal

Answer: A state of optimal anxiety and other emotions

  • 110. Arousal is the state of being aroused.
    • a. Direction for motivation
    • b. Motivational intensity
    • c. Frequency and motivation
    • d. Interaction between cognition and emotions
    • e. A. and D

Answer: Motivational intensity

  • 111. According to the inverted U-hypothesis,
    • a. Performance decreases as arousal rises
    • b. Arousal can either be too high or low
    • c. Top performance is at a moderate level arousal
    • d. A, and C
    • e.B and C

Answer: B and C

  • 112. Hanin's Zones of Optimal Functioning Approach suggests that
    • a. Every individual has an optimal level of efficiency
    • b. Moderate arousal will result in the best performance
    • c. High arousal results in better performance
    • d. All individuals are in the same zone of optimal functioning
    • e. None

Answer: Every individual is unique and has their own optimal level of efficiency

  • 113. There is a direct correlation between one's level and another.
    • a. Cognitive anxiety and somatic worry
    • b. State anxiety and trait anxiety
    • c. Stress and Arousal
    • d. A, and C
    • e.B and C

Answer: State anxiety and trait anxiety

  • 114. What stage of the stress response does the physiological response and decision-making occur?
    • a. 1. Stage
    • b. Stage 2
    • c. Stage 3
    • d. Stage 4

Answer: Stage 3

  • 115. What personality traits are related to state anxiety change?
    • a. Trait anxiety
    • b. Social physique anxiety
    • c. Self-esteem
    • d. All the above
    • e. A. and C

Answer: All the above

  • 116. Higher self-esteem athletes are more likely than others to experience low self-esteem.
    • a. Low levels of confidence and high levels of state anxiety
    • b. Low levels of confidence and low anxiety
    • c. Low trait anxiety and confidence
    • d. High levels of confidence and anxiety
    • e. Low confidence, low arousal

Answer: Low levels of confidence and high levels of state anxiety

  • 117. According to catastrophe theory, a "catastrophe” occurs when there is no other way to describe it.
    • a. Anxiety about trait and state of high anxiety
    • b. High levels of cognitive and somatic anxiety
    • c. High cognitive and physiological anxiety
    • d. High physiological anxiety and high somatic anxiety
    • e. None

Answer: High levels of cognitive anxiety and physiological arousal

  • 118. Which of these is NOT a manifestation of excessive state anxiety?
    • a. Feeling threatened
    • b. Muscle tension
    • c. Attentional problems
    • d. A, and C
    • e. B and C

Answer: Feeling threatened

  • 119. These guidelines are appropriate for applying anxiety and arousal knowledge.
    • a. Recognizing signs of anxiety and increased arousal
    • b. Understanding how situational and personal factors affect arousal levels and performance
    • c. Individual tailoring of coaching and teaching practices
    • d. All the above
    • e. A. and C

Answer: All the above

  • 120. The quarterback must shift his attention from scouting the field for receivers to delivering a pass. This would take place at
    • A. Broad-external to wide-internal
    • b. Broad-external and broad-external
    • c. Broad-external, to narrow-external
    • d. Broad-external and narrow-internal
    • e. Broad-external to close-external

Answer: Broad-external to close-external

  • 121. Multidimensional anxiety theory predicts
    • a. Negative relationship between cognitive anxiety, performance and memory
    • b. A relationship inverted-U between somatic anxiety, performance and somatic anxiety
    • c. A reverse-U relationship between cognitive anxiety and performance
    • d. A, and C
    • e. A. and B

Answer: A and B

  • 122. Performance and arousal depend on how one interprets the arousal level. This is the fundamental approach to
    • a. The Catastrophe Theory
    • b. Theory of driving
    • c. Reversal theory
    • d. Inverted U Hypothesis
    • e. Zones for optimal functioning

Answer: Reversal theory

  • 123. Which of these statements is true about the home-court advantage
    • a. It is most prominent in football and baseball
    • b. Between 1924 and 1982 the home team in the Baseball World Series won 77% of the games.
    • c. In the National Basketball Association, 47% of home teams won between 1984 and 1994 when there was a seventh match during the play-offs
    • d. A, and B
    • e. None

Answer: None of the above

  • 124. Which theory predicts that there is a linear relationship between performance and arousal?
    • a. The Catastrophe Theory
    • b. Theory of driving
    • c. Inverted theory
    • d. Zones for optimal functioning
    • e. Reversal theory

Answer: Driving theory

  • 125. An athlete who is highly anxious about their traits (as opposed to an athlete who is less anxious) might perceive competition as a threat.
    • a. Less threatening and more anxiety-producing
    • b. Less frightening and anxiety-producing
    • c. Fearful and anxious feelings
    • d. Less frightening and more anxiety-producing
    • e. None

Answer: Anxiety is more threatening and can be more frightening

  • 126. A general level of anxiety that remains relatively stable over time is called
    • a. Trait anxiety
    • b. State anxiety
    • c. Cognitive anxiety
    • d. Somatic anxiety
    • e. Arousal

Answer: Trait anxiety

  • 127. Weinberg and Hurt (1976) conducted a study of college students with high- and low-level trait anxiety.
    • a. Infeasible performance was caused by increased muscle soreness
    • b. Inflation in muscle tension was a contributing factor to poor performance
    • c. Inadequate performance due to increased coordination problems
    • d. A, and C
    • e.B and C

Answer: B and C

  • 128. Basketball and football are two examples of team sports.
    • a. Competitive means--competitive ends
    • b. Cooperative means--competitive ends
    • c. Individual means--individual goals
    • d. Cooperative means--cooperative ends
    • e. Individual ends - cooperative means

Answer: Cooperative means-competitive ends

  • 129. Kelley and Stahelski found that Kelley's and Stahelski had used the prisoner's dilemma to study this issue.
    • a. Competition was arranged by competitors to draw cooperators
    • b. Competitors were drawn into cooperation by cooperators
    • c. Competitors competed while cooperators worked together
    • d. A, and C
    • e.B and C

Answer: Competitors attracted cooperators to the competition

  • 130. Which one of the following are characteristics of cooperative gaming?
    • a. They don't require much equipment or money.
    • b. They stress participation by all players
    • c. Players learn from their mistakes and not hide from them
    • d. All the above
    • e. A. and B

Answer: All the above

  • 131. Coakley defines competition as
    • a. Situation where rewards are shared equally between participants
    • b. A social process in which rewards are given based on comparative performance
    • c. Situation where the participants' goals are interdependent
    • d. B. and C
    • e. None

Answer: A social process in which rewards are given based on comparative performance.

  • 132. The experimenters were the first to participate in the Sherif-Sherif field experiments.
    • a. Created strong group identity
    • b. Facilitated cooperation between counselors
    • c. Created competition between counselors

Answer: Created a strong group identity

  • 133. Orlick's 14-week study on the effects of cooperative games found that
    • a. Children exposed to cooperative games displayed three times more cooperative behavior during free play than those in the control group.
    • b. The games played by the control group were more focused on individualistic concerns.
    • c. Children who were exposed to cooperative games had higher self-esteem after the program than children in the control group.
    • d. All the above
    • e. A. and B

Answer: A and B

  • 134. One athlete is excited for competition, while the other is anxious about the next event. This is an example
    • a. Objective competitive situation
    • b. The subjective competitive situation
    • c.The subjective competitive environment

Answer: The subjective competitive environment

  • 135. Which one of the following statements (are) false?
    • a. More boys play competitive games than girls
    • b. Boys' games are more risk-taking and aggressive than girls' games
    • c. Girls often play in male-dominated groups more often than boys, and vice versa.
    • d. None
    • e. A. and C

Answer: None of the above

  • 136. Marten's definitions of competition are key.
    • a. Comparison of social factors
    • b. Observational Learning
    • c. Objective result
    • d. Positive reinforcement
    • e. None

Answer: Comparison of social factors

  • 137. Which of the following statements is true in relation to stage 2's subjective competitive situation?
    • a. On win orientation, males scored higher than their female counterparts
    • b. Females scored higher on goal orientation than their male counterparts
    • c. Competitive orientation: Athletes are more successful than nonathletes
    • d. All the above
    • e. A. and B

Answer: All the above

  • 138. ____________ is a planned, structured and repetitive physical activity.
    • a. A.
    • b. Exercise
    • c. Leisure activity
    • d. Sport

Answer: Exercise

  • 139. A Sport Psychology Practitioner can be expected to teach, consult, or conduct research.
    • a. True
    • b. False

Answer: True

  • 140. In a study looking at the effects of imagery and stress, what would be the independent variable?
    • a. None of these answers
    • b. Stress
    • c. Imagery
    • d. Stress and imagery

Answer: Imagery

  • 141. Cognitive-behavioral orientation teaches that behavior can be determined by:
    • a. The brain's psychophysiological processes underlie this.
    • b. Both the environment and your thoughts
    • c. The personal and social environment

Answer: Both environment and thoughts

  • 142. Zajonc's theory of social facilitation predicts this performance.
    • a. An audience facilitates the completion of well-learned tasks.
    • b. An audience can hinder the ability to perform well-learned tasks
    • c. Does not get affected by an audience

Answer: An audience facilitates the discussion of novel tasks and An audience facilitates the learning of well-learned tasks

  • 143. ________ (are) how we adjust to our environment
    • a. Psychological core
    • b. Behaviors that are related to the role of the body
    • c.Common responses
    • d. Belief Systems

Answer: Common responses

  • 144. Individuals are compared using an intra-individual approach for psychological testing.
    • a. To population norms
    • b. How they score on a psychological inventory
    • c. To gender and age norms
    • d. Based upon objective and subjective assessments

Answer: How they score on a psychological inventory

  • 145. An example of aggressive people in aggressive situations is:
    • a. Psychodynamic Approach
    • b. The interactional approach
    • c. The trait approach
    • d. The situational approach

Answer: The interactional approach

  • 146. This part of the personality structure is the most unstable and is greatly affected by the current situation
    • a. Psychological core
    • b. Common responses
    • c. Role-related behavior
    • d. None

Answer: Role-related behavior

  • 147. Which of these is NOT a guideline to use mood profiling with elite athletes
    • a. It can be used to monitor your training load
    • b. It can be used to monitor the acclimatization process
    • c. Use it to predict team success
    • d. It can be used to identify overtrained athletes

Answer: It can be used to predict team success

  • 148. Motivation for achievement can be best viewed as:
    • a. Situational factors
    • b. A personality factor
    • c. An attributeal factor
    • d. An unstable factor

Answer: Personality factor

  • 149. Stable attributions can be linked to:
    • a. Affect
    • b. Cognition
    • c. Future success or failure expectations
    • d. Physiological manifestations

Answer: Future success or failure: Expectations

  • 150. Ewing and Seefeldt (1996) say that this is not a reason youth sports participation is encouraged.
    • a. Have fun
    • b. Be with friends
    • c. Experiencing excitement
    • d. All are cited reasons

Answer: All are cited reasons

  • 151. High achievers are more concerned with emotional factors than low achievers. They focus on _____________, while those who do not achieve this focus on ____________.
    • a. Elation; depression
    • b. Fun; depression
    • c. Pride; depression
    • d. Pride and shame

Answer: Pride and shame

  • 152. The best way to predict situations in which there is a chance of success is with need achievement theory
    • a. High (>75%)
    • b. Low (25%)
    • c. Moderate (50%)
    • d. None

Answer: Moderate (50%)

  • 153. The catastrophe model predicts that a disaster will occur with:
    • a. High trait and state anxiety
    • b. High cognitive anxiety and physiological arousal
    • c. High somatic and physiological anxiety
    • d. High physiological arousal and somatic anxiety

Answer: High levels of cognitive anxiety and physiological arousal

  • 154. This is not a major factor in stress response.
    • a. Environmental demands
    • b. Behavioral consequences
    • c. Demand perceptions
    • d. All the above

Answer: All the above

  • 155. It would be more difficult to control state anxiety in an experiment than trait anxiety.
    • a. True
    • b. False

Answer: False

  • 156. Which state is truthful?
    • a. Anxiety is generally perceived by athletes as being more facilitating.
    • b. Performance can be enhanced by combining positive emotions
    • c. Situational and personal factors influence anxiety interpretation
    • d. All the above are true

Answer: All of the above is true

  • 157. What is the major difference between the inverted U hypothesis (IZOF), and the Individualized Zones of Optimal Functioning(IZOF).
    • Optimal anxiety can be viewed as a bandwidth in IZOF
    • b. The midpoint of the Inverted U is where optimal arousal takes place
    • c. IZOF takes into account cognitive factors
    • d. A and B
    • e. None

Answer: Both A and B

  • 158. Cooperative games have the following characteristics:
    • a. They don't require much equipment or money.
    • b. They encourage greater participation from the best players
    • c. Players learn from their mistakes and not hide from them
    • d. A and C
    • e. Both A and B

Answer: They require very little money or equipment.

  • 159. Research shows that athletes are generally less successful than non-athletes.
    • a. True
    • b. False

Answer: False

  • 160. The Sport Orientations Questionnaire, (SOQ), includes all the above except
    • a. Competitiveness
    • b. Win orientation
    • c. Motivation
    • d. Goal orientation

Answer: Motivation

  • 161. Which one of the following statements are true?
    • a. More boys play competitive games than girls
    • b. Boys' games are more aggressive than girls'
    • c. Girls are more likely to be in male groups than boys.
    • d. A and C

Answer: Both A and B

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Assignment Example on Sport Psychology. (2022, Aug 04). Retrieved from https://proessays.net/essays/assignment-example-on-sport-psychology

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