1. Why did young Scipio refuse to accept the "corona civica" after the Battle of Ticinus where his father had been captured?
Scipio rejected the offer for the position of corona civica based on his belief that his role in the battle of Ticinus was self-rewarding therefore there was no need to be offered such as a great commendation.
2. How did Scipio sway the army officers from rebellion after the Roman defeat at Cannae?
Scipio was able to control the army officers before they could fully rebel. Scipio achieved this by urging them to stay calm; he assured them that all they needed was courage and action, not deliberation, as an immediate form of reaction to the calamity of defeat that befell them.
3. How did Scipio defeat the Carthaginians in Spain (Iberia) whereby in 206 B.C.E.Spain would be in the hands of the Romans for the next 700 years?
Scipio tactically and strategically approached the battle by dividing his troops into groups in which one was stronger than the other was. He would direct the weaker one to attack to give the other troop the opportunity strike and was able to defeat the Carthaginians.
4. What was his reward for defeating the Carthaginians in Spain?
Scipio was rewarded for defeating Carthaginians in Spain by being named the Roman consul, which implied that he was at the highest elected political leader in Rome.
5. Why was Scipio given the name "Africanus" by the Roman Senate?
Scipio was able to achieve triumph over Hannibal's army from which she was able to secure some considerable amount of wealth (gold and silver) Rome; he was therefore named Africanus.
6. Why did Rome turn its back on Scipio after he had been honored so many times by the Roman Senate?
Rome finally turned it back on Scipio when he was accused of accepting bribery and failed to appear before the Senate for summoning on the alleged act.
7. Why did the young Octavian seek the friendship of Marc Antony?
Octavian sought friendship with Marc Antony with the aim of establishing an avenge for the assimilation of Caesar. He learned that his grandfather (step-grandfather), Caesar was killed during the time he was undergoing military training at Syria. The need to secure a relationship with Antony was enabled him a backup and a stronger force to face the groups of people which he could be associating with the assassination.
8. Who formed the Second Triumvirate?
The second Triumvirate was formed by three leaders; Antony, his general Marcus Lepidus, and Octavian. Antony was his former ally with whom they differed when Octavian wanted to issue an immediate avenge of his grandfather's death. Marcus Lepidus was Antony's general who was always in his side even when he rebelled against Octavian to form their military body. The formation of the second Triumvirate involved the three and saw their coming together.
9. Why was Cicero executed?
Cicero was executed because he was a potential opponent to the second Triumvirate. His execution resulted when the three leaders of the organization issued death warrants to any political opponents who were reluctant to support their movement, or to whoever demonstrated a direct opposition to them. Being a popular figure in the opposition side, Cicero would be executed to set an example to any who could as well plan to oppose them.
10. Why was the public moved to support Octavian over Marc Antony?
The public preferred Octavian to Marc Antony since they needed a leader who was able to defend their cause and traditions. Octavian has demonstrated his potential and ability to restore order and peace among the public which was the major basis of preference of the people. This form of ability was, however, lacking in Antony, was relatively less popular among the public and perceived as an individual who was specifically too fond of the ways and traditions of the east; this was not satisfactory to the public.
11. What was the final collapse of the "Second Triumvirate"?
The final collapse of the Second Triumvirate came Antony began a relationship of Cleopatra which later had significant political repercussions. Antony soon became infatuated in his relationship with the lady whom he marries officially and partying ways with Octavian's sister. He claimed that Caesarion, the son of his current wife was the actual son of Caesar which made Octavian upset and the immediate result was the end of the Second Triumvirate, involving conflict and war.
12. What authority did the Senate grant Octavian in 29 B.C.E.?
The Senate granted Octavian the unprecedented power as a way of issuing him the authority to help the Romans preserve their traditional liberty. The people of Rome were tired of ills in their society and wanted a form of revolution in which they would experience a shift from ill activities affecting their traditional liberty directly to a situation in which they would have the resolution of the same in the hand of an authoritarian leader.
13. How did Octavian, now Augustus, avoid the appearance of establishing a monarchy?
Augustus was able to avoid the appearance of establishing a monarchy ensuring that public relations could be obviously felt by the people under his rule. He demonstrated by showing sufficient respect to the Senate who formed a considerable part of the governing body. Moreover, he was not significantly distinguished among the public by being a common associate; he would easily mingle with the people. This made it possible to prevent any means through which monarchy would be evident.
14. What cultural and intellectual achievements were evident during the reign of Augustus?
He was able to renew creative and patriotism accomplishment during his rule which ensured many writings on history and literature. Augustus himself was a great writer who emphasized on the internal quality of Rome. This made it possible for the rise of the potential poets such as Horace and Ovid whose works were significant contributors to the communication of supremacy of Rome.
Browne, Blaine T, and Robert C Cottrell. Lives And Legacies: Biographies In Western Civilization. 1st ed., Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2003.
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