It is a review of the article on the internet and higher learning that was authored by Demei Shen, Moon-Heum Cho, Chia-Lin Tsai and Rose Marra. The title established as Unpacking online learning experiences: Online learning self-efficacy and learning satisfaction. The article is published on the internet and higher education of the year 2013. Volume 19 on the pages 10-11 (Yilmaz, 2017). The authors of this article established the need to provide knowledge on the role that self-efficacy plays in actualizing online learning (Alqurashi, 2016). The problem then being on the previous focus on computer-based self-efficacy. The article then provides added knowledge on the numerous multifaceted dimensions to which self-efficacy could then be approached. The authors were then tasked with establishing these dimensions that were five in number (So, 2016).
The authors are then basing their analysis on previous determinations on how self-efficacy impacts on an education drive to solve problems presented to individuals. It is determined on the different levels of self-efficacy that individuals tend to develop over time, as suggested by Kirmizi, (2015). A determinant on the capabilities that individuals possess in allocating necessary solutions and implementations to educational issues. There then is a consideration on the concept of self-efficacy presented to online learning operational frameworks (Jan 2015). Attention then allocated on the individual aspects necessary in the actualisation of any learning on an online platform. Then considering all technical aspects of self-efficacy, all learning processes and the contribution of socialism to the attainment of set learning goals (Horzum, 2015). The authors have then provided a precise outline of the purpose of developing the article and offering comprehensive definitions to the major topics under analysis and keenly providing a relation of the various variables that are presented with any learning structure - considering the various backgrounds that learners under such a program have been sourced (Kauffman, 2015). The previous experiences that individual farmers have had concerning online learning. Then the consideration on the gender of learners, higher learning institutions allowing the admission of learners from both sexes (Yilmaz, 2017). The other variable described being the academic status to individual learners on the level attained on an academic basis. There exists a clear explanation of how these variables are connected with the levels of self-efficacy attained by learners. The authors were showing a comprehensive understanding of the relationship relayed by the deduced concepts on self-efficacy, utilizing easily understandable terms that provide a clear interpretation of the content being relayed (Yilmaz, 2017).
In the article, it is noticed of the authors' utility of various sources to certain their arguments. They are providing relevant justifications to deductions made and considering that the desire to adopt technological frameworks to learning processes began with the availability and easier access to the internet (Vayre & Vonthron, 2017). Whose structural actualisations began in relatively the past half-century, the references would then prove to be relevant in arriving at the establishments made, considering the continued desire by learners to utilized developed technological advancements to improve on their education prowess. The articles that have been used have been authored during the related time frames and thus provide legit justifications to the arguments being relayed. There then being provision of the region that the various variables presented are communicated through a transition from traditionally established frameworks to desired advanced online frameworks.
Statement to the relevance that was expected to be derived from this research is clear. That is the determination of the existence of the multiple dimensions to which online self-efficacy could be This (Kuo & Belland, 2017). This purpose to the research then well stated and a decision arrived at on the most appropriate analytic approach to the justification of the same. The authors are seen to utilize the exploratory factor analysis approach to the determination of the five dimensions to which online self-efficacy could be analysed. And this is a logical approach that assures the legitimacy to all dimensions that were arrived at. Attention then also allocated on the satisfaction that established online frameworks should assure to the learners. Crucial in determining developed levels of self-efficacy.
According to Prior et al., (2016), the numerical methods utilized in arriving at relevant conclusions prove to be efficient. The use of a sample of space of online students with the task of determining the observable dimensions to self-efficacy (Yilmaz, 2017). Also enabling the establishment of the different levels of satisfaction derived from these steps. A set of desired questions then used to avail the desired variables to the study. There is then a comprehensive conclusion to all establishments made after research (Yilmaz, 2017). They are providing relevance to established outcomes. Notice than on the existence of gaps from unjustifiable outcomes due to the approach utilized. The objective of performing the research is then achieved; however, there are no suggestions on any further possible research on the problem.
Alqurashi, E. (2016), self-efficacy in online learning environments: A literature review. Contemporary Issues in Education Research (Online), 9(1), 45. DOI: 10.19030/cier. v9i1.9549
Jan, S.K., (2015), the relationships between academic self-efficacy, computer self- efficacy, prior experience, and satisfaction with online learning. American Journal of Distance Education, 29(1), 30-40. DOI: 10.1080/08923647.2015.994366
Kauffman, H., (2015), a review of predictive factors of student success in and satisfaction with online learning. Research in Learning Technology, 23. OI: 10.3402/rlt.v23.26507
Prior, D.D., Mazanov, J., Meacheam, D., Heaslip, G., Hanson, J., (2016), attitude, digital literacy and self-efficacy: flow-on effects for online learning behaviour. The Internet and Higher Education, 29, 91-97. DOI: 10.1016/j.iheduc.2016.01.001
Vayre, E., Vonthron, A.M., (2017), psychological engagement of students in distance and online learning: Effects of self-efficacy and psychosocial processes. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 55(2), 197-218. DOI: 10.1177/0735633116656849
Yilmaz, R. (2017), exploring the role of e-learning readiness on student satisfaction and motivation in a flipped classroom. Computers in Human Behavior, 70, 251-260. DOI: 10.1016/j.chb.2016.12.085
Kuo, Y.C., Belland, B.R., (2016), an exploratory study of adult learners' perceptions of online learning: Minority students in continuing education. Educational Technology Research and Development, 64(4), 661-680. DOI: 10.1007/s11423-016-9442-9
Kirmizi, O. (2015), the influence of learner readiness on student satisfaction and academic achievement in an online program at higher education. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology - TOJET, 14(1), 133-142. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281667082_The_influence_of_learner_readiness_on_student_satisfaction_and_academic_achievement_in_an_online_program_at_higher_education
Horzum, M.B. (2015), interaction, structure, social presence, and satisfaction in online learning. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 11(3). DOI: 10.12973/eurasia.2014.1324a
So, S., (2016), mobile instant messaging support for teaching and learning in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 31, 32-42. DOI: 10.1016/j.iheduc.2016.06.001
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