Annotated Bibliography on Confucius on Upright Leadership and Best Way to Rule

Paper Type:  Essay
Pages:  3
Wordcount:  774 Words
Date:  2022-12-29

1. The Master Said, "If the Ruler Himself is Upright, All Will go Well Even though He Does Not Give Orders." How Does Confucius expect Rulers to Rule? (4:1, P. 121- 122). What is the Best Way to Rule? Use Examples From the Master.

According to Confucius, leaders are expected to lead by virtue as opposed to using force. He elucidated that if a leader is morally upright, he will serve as a role model to his or her followers in such a way that they follow without being ordered and conduct themselves in terms of morality. Confucius expected leaders to understand all aspects of human nature-where all people share good character- to design active administrative principles (Reilly, 2016). For instance, the Master said that people will try to avoid punishments but will not acquire a sense of shame; therefore, the lousy natures will persist (Reilly, 2016). However, the morality of leaders can aid followers to change their habits. The best ways for leaders to rule with virtue is by being compassionate towards their subordinates, love, and respect the desires of the populace.

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2. Han Feizi (4:3, Pp. 138-141), Disagrees With the Confucianists (Perhaps Even Despises them). Why? What is the Best Way to Rule? Use Examples.

Han Feizi opposed Confucianists because he believed that people are more inclined to vices as opposed to good since they are self-centered, while Confucianism emphasized that the human nature is good and all people can be morally upright. His philosophy, legalism, aimed at establishing laws that would direct people's selfish nature towards the good of a country (Reilly, 2016). For example, if rulers expect individuals to be guided by morals-given the selfish nature of human beings-not all people will conform to the idea; however, if a leader uses measures that guide people from committing evil, an entire state will achieve conformity by doing good (Reilly, 2016). Additionally, legalists believed that leaders' morality had no significance in governance since a government does not belong to one person. Therefore, the best way to rule a state is by establishing a set of laws that will govern people in doing good for generations and punish those who break them to a given societal standard.

3. Laozi (4:2, Pp. 123-127) has little use for Ritual or the Law. He is much more concerned with The Way (Tao). While I realize that, "The Way that can be discussed is not The Way," I Am Nonetheless Giving You the Impossible Task of Answering the Question: What is The Way?

Laozi gave little regard to law or ritual in governing a country. He emphasized on The Way that is based on the notion that a larger comic force known as the Tao determines the flow and balance; therefore, people and nations should be flexible enough to move with trends. For example, Laozi compared a kingdom to a spirit, which cannot be achieved forcefully or by practicing good (Reilly, 2016). Instead, going by the flow in that larger states become gentle to smaller ones to win their hearts and the lower kingdoms respect their precedence (Reilly, 2016). In this case, smaller nations accept the way or the flow, which is to be governed and protected by the larger once to avoid war and conflict.

4. From "The Art of Love," (5:5, Pp. 175-181). Here it is: Your Key to every Man or Woman's Heart. What do Men Need to do? What do Women Need to Do? Is this Good Advice? Which Parts make Sense to You, and which Parts do not?

Ovid had harnessed his skills on sexuality and love in such a way that he had multiple methods, which individuals could utilize to find affection from a perfect counterpart. For instance, to win a woman's heart, he proposed that men must have faith, develop a good relationship with mistress's maids to intelligence concerning when she is in a loving mood, and use tears and kisses to establish an atmosphere of love. They can also mingle gently even if the women resist a little; after all, they all desire to be conquered (Reilly, 2016). On the other hand, women can clean-up in private and maintain a high level of hygiene, use fear and jealousy to keep men enthusiastic, and harness their art having sex to lure men into loving them (Reilly, 2016). Ovid's advice is perfect for individuals seeking affection; however, in today's contemporary society, where people materialize affection, the approach may not be entirely applicable. Ovid's propositions that women should maintain high hygiene standards to gain affections are compelling, while the idea of satisfying sex has little connection with achieving true love.


Reilly, K. (2016). World's of History, Volume 1: A comparative reader, to 1550 (Sixth Edition). New York, NY: Bedford/ St Martin's.

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