Victimology

Date:  2021-03-12 09:46:56
7 pages  (1779 words)
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This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.
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This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Victimology can be defined as the study of victimization and how individuals can cope with victimization (Bhushan, 2012). There is a wide range of literature on victimology, with most of the available studies focusing on how to cope with stress, depression and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) after being victimized (Bellizzi, et al. 2010). Victimization can take various forms including sexual crimes such as rape, molestation or stigmatization as a result of contracting a long term disease such as HIV/AIDS or cancer (Bellizzi, et al. 2010). After being victimized, the individuals go through difficult periods in which their life changed drastically. Some of them get into self-denial and may find it difficult that they were victims of such crimes. Furthermore, the manner in which the families and friends of the victims take relate with the victims after the process of victimization also affects the way in which the victims respond to the situation.

Immediate reactions to sexual abuse or other forms of victimization include shock, fear or disbelief. On the other hand, the long term effects that may develop in the long term include depression, self-destructive tendencies, somatic disturbances and dissociation, negative self-concept, low self-esteem, isolation, interpersonal relationship difficulties, re-victimization, and sexual problems (Bellizzi, et al. 2010). Some authors propose several strategies for helping the victims to deal with issues of sexual abuse and other forms of victimization. These include therapy, helping the family come to terms with the abuse, treating individuals as well as family, and various self-help programs (Arpawong, et al., 2013).

Post-traumatic growth entails establishing positive relations between the victims and the offenders, facilitating forgiveness, facilitating smooth interactions between the victims and the criminal justice system to ensure justice is served, as well as encouraging the connection between the victims and other social groups that can help them recover and move on with their lives.

Post-traumatic growth can be described as the positive psychological changes that one undergoes as a result of experiencing adversities and various other challenges including being victims of different kinds of crimes, to a state where they are able to function properly. Life after victimization can be a huge challenge for those affected. It is often difficult for individuals to cope with the stigma and segregation associated with their conditions (Arpawong, et al., 2013). This often results in the development of various psychological conditions including depression and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), which can significantly affect ones health. However, with the help of various specialists such as psychiatrists and psychological counseling, one can effectively recover from the condition by altering their mentality, accepting themselves and gaining the necessary strength required to face life (Bellizzi, et al. 2010).

Consequently, coping with victimization requires one to undergo some sort of paradigm shift, which relates to altering their mentality completely. This is a very difficult process for most victims as it requires one to move from the state of victimization into self-acceptance and starting a new life. In most cases, victimization can be difficult to reverse; hence. The victims can never go back to the way they were prior to being victimized (Arpawong, et al., 2013). This life changing process, which no one plans for, can be very difficult to handle. However, copping with the situation is necessary in order to enable the victims to fully realize their potential in life regardless of their condition. Thus, the victims ought not to focus on the negatives associated with the condition, but rather thing about what is necessary in moving on with the circumstances they are faced with (Bellizzi, et al. 2010). Gaining control of the situation can also be a challenge for those affected. Therefore, this paper will explore ways to achieve posttraumatic growth after victimization of a crime, including life changes, coping mechanisms, and gaining control.

Arguments

Life after victimization can be very difficult for the victims of traumatic experiences. Traumatic experiences often destruct one from living life naturally. This is because these experiences are life-changing and can alter ones course of life forever (Bhushan, 2012). For some of the affected victims, depression may come as a result of realizing that their lives have changed forever and that they may never be in apposition to accomplish their goals and objectives like they had always planned. Nobody plans for victimization in their lives, but once it happens, it becomes a reality that one has to deal with (Baker, Kelly, Calhoun, Cann, & Tedeschi, 2008). The life after victimization can be very difficult for various reasons. For example, the victims of crimes or different health conditions are often victimized through issues such as stigmatization and segregation, which makes it very difficult for them to cope with their conditions.

Life after victimization can be a huge challenge for individuals because it alienates them from what they are used to living in their natural environment. The natural environment is one where an individual can be able to express themselves effectively and achieve their potential without any destruction (Cadell, Regehr, & Hemsworth, 2003). However, victimization often makes this difficult for people as it affects their psychological thinking and weakens their strength for them to focus on anything positive.

However, there are several life changes that one can undergo in order to overcome the challenges associated with victimization. Contemporary studies in psychology postulate a wide range of coping strategies for victims of victimization. Some of these strategies may require the individual to make crucial personal life decisions, through proper guidance and assistance from professionals as well as with the support of friends and family (Bellizzi, et al. 2010).

One such life change strategy is through education. Education focuses on opening up the minds and empowering the victims to understand their situation and helping them realize the different options they can take to make their lives meaningful (Bhushan, 2012). Also there is the strategy of self-help. This involves one taking the initiative to manage the situation they find themselves, for instance, one can join with other individuals facing the same circumstances and find ways of sharing ideas on how to overcome. One can also manage the situation through developing hobbies and finding something to do. This will help take the focus of the individual form the circumstances they face and help them focus on other things that they enjoy doing (Arpawong, et al., 2013).

Also, an individual can find comfort in religion and spirituality through practicing their faith. This will help give them the necessary hope and belief that things will get better with time and that God has a purpose for everything (Bhushan, 2012). Also, an individual can explore themselves, meditate about their condition, find their strength and pick up the remaining pieces of their lives and move on to become better persons. Finally, one can also manage the situation by developing self-confidence.

Nonetheless, there are many different coping mechanisms that one can rely upon to effectively overcome the challenges associated with the condition. One such coping mechanism is using healthy coping skills. This will include exercising, seeking medication, and seeking help from specialists such as counselors (Baker, Kelly, Calhoun, Cann, & Tedeschi, 2008). Secondly, one can also use different positive coping skills. For instance, one can build self-confidence, accept themselves and change their mentality to start living their life in a new way. Finally, one can also use a pattern of healthy coping skills including eating well and exercising to grow their physical strength given their circumstances.

The other important factor in port traumatic growth is regaining control of ones situation. This is necessary in helping one manage the situation effectively. There are many different types of control that one can exercise including perceived control, getting rid of vicarious control, present control, and future control. The other aspect of taking charge of the situation is managing the initial distress associated with it (Bhushan, 2012). This can effectively be achieved through counseling and therapy that will be critical in strengthening the victims psychology and strengthening his or her mentality. Also, one will have to be in a transforming social environment, which comprises of the friends, family and various social groups and organizations that can create a positive social environment for the victim to recover (Baker, Kelly, Calhoun, Cann, & Tedeschi, 2008). Finally, one also needs to make certain drastic life changes in the process of achieving post traumatic growth. For instance, one has to commit themselves to counseling, getting higher education, and moving or gaining life experiences that can help them overcome the situation.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the papers main objective was to explore ways to achieve posttraumatic growth after victimization of a crime, including life changes, coping mechanisms, and gaining control. Post traumatic growth often requires one to exhibit strong adaptive strategies as this is often a huge challenge when it comes to one comprehending the circumstances they find themselves in and how they can be restored to their former self. However, post traumatic growth is not about an individual returning to their former life and status, but rather it is a process of undergoing significant life changing psychological transformations in terms of their thought process and accepting oneself given the circumstances and to be in a position to carry on with life after the traumatic experience. Therefore, one needs to seek help from specialists, undergo therapy and counseling in order to be able to seal with the situation. Among the changes one needs to make to effectively overcome the challenge include changing their mentality, learning to accept their condition, and determining how to move on from there regardless of the opposition or victimization they may encounter. Also, an individual can find comfort in religion and spirituality through practicing their faith. This will help give them the necessary hope and belief that things will get better with time and that God has a purpose for everything. Also, an individual can explore themselves, meditate about their condition, find their strength and pick up the remaining pieces of their lives and move on to become better persons.

References

Arpawong, T. E., Richeimer, S. H., Weinstein, F., Elghamrawy, A., & Milam, J. E. (2013). Posttraumatic growth, quality of life, and treatment symptoms among cancer chemotherapy outpatients. Health Psychology, 32(4), 397408.

Baker, J. M., Kelly, C., Calhoun, L. G., Cann, A., & Tedeschi, R. G. (2008). An examination of posttraumatic growth and posttraumatic depreciation. Journal of Loss & Trauma, 13, 450465.

Bellizzi, K. M., Smith, A. W., Reeve, B. B., Alfano, C. M., Bernstein, L., Meeske, K., et al. (2010). Post-traumatic growth and health-related quality of life in a racially diverse cohort of breast cancer survivors. Journal of Health Psychology, 15(4), 615626.

Bhushan, B. (2012). A study of posttraumatic stress and growth in tsunami relief volunteers. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 17, 113124.

Bhushan, B. (2012). A study of posttraumatic stress and growth in tsunami relief volunteers. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 17, 113124.

Cadell, S., Regehr, C., & Hemsworth, D. (2003)....

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