Brief Description of the issue and Project
For many years, the global labor market has undergone a tremendous transformation from industrial to the post-industrial economy. In this way, strong economic, political and social developments have contributed to the feminisation of the labor force. It implies that the parents employment especially the mothers has been well placed by the government as a policy to help solve the child poverty when an individuals roles to provides finances increases under austerity measures (MacLeavy 359). The project, therefore, shifts the emphasis to consider the understanding of children regarding gender-related responsibilities of parents in the middle and working class families regarding social reproduction and employment. Primarily, the project focuses on the domination of the male-breadwinning role in families and ultimately explores the manner in which children understand the labor market insecurity for working fathers. It considers this aspect about its impacts upon the mothers. In the end, the project highlights the necessity of considering childrens perception of gendered parents roles both in now and in future.
Contribution to new ways of thinking about urban social structure and class systems
Various studies have been used to understand the urban social fabric and the class systems. Notably, the majority of these studies concern the closure or the openness, in addition to the deprivations and gratification. In this sense, these apply to a given individuals or groups and collectivities because some of them have the opportunities for the betterment of their social standing while other remain of the same. It is undeniable that individuals are the fundamental regarding the motivational structure, use of the available opportunities and the utilization of the means of communications aimed at realizing an individuals aspirations. Theoretically speaking, the urban social fabric can be classified regarding its openness, occupation, mobility, particular position and attributional criteria such as income and education (MacLeavy 725).
In the chosen project, Helena Pimlott finds that the educational, occupational and the income hierarchies are substantially correlated with one another. It does not, however, imply that the correlation of each of these elements with operational caste hierarchy is significant. The social class position is positively correlated with the family income as well as the education. Pimlotts case plays a crucial role in defining a social class as observed in the urban social system. Ideally, the author does this through an exploration of children experiences of, and the attitudes to, parental employment within different socio-economic context. The terms middle and working class are useful in offering the description and the differences between the sub-groups. For instance, the family is described as the working class where their children attend a school that charge more financially impoverished communities and when the breadwinner holds a semi or routine occupation. The higher education growth has enabled some women and men to get professional occupations, which make them, dictate an equal position in labor market just like men. The middle-class women will, therefore, take highly skilled professions that allow them to participate in their household's breadwinning roles substantially.
Finally, Pimlott further contributes significantly to the description and the definition of the social class systems in urban areas. Ain his opinion, he defines the social class as the category of individual possessing more or less equal prestige or social status. Drawing from the class readings, it is undeniable that occupational prestige is an essential indicator of the position within the urban social structure.
Ways in which the case studies link social justice and social well-being issues
The social justice refers to the equal distribution of resources and the opportunities in which the factors that categorize individuals are not considered hence irrelevant (Chapman and West-Burnham 34). On a wider note, it is the view that all the individuals deserve equal economic, political, and social right, in addition to the opportunities. It is undeniable that the chosen cases tremendously link the social justice and social well-being, in the sense that the promotion of social justice within the society contributes to individuals social wellbeing. Specifically, the selected article offers the information regarding the employment of women, and the active roles they take after securing the occupation and includes being their households breadwinners.
The project recognizes the policies such as The Equal Pay and Sex Discrimination Act of 1970 that played integral roles in strengthening the place of women in the labor force in England (Pimlott 4). The more recent transformations to lone parents income support and the rise in the state pensions age have forced women to various degrees with the aim of participating in the labor force. Concerning the readings, films, discussions, and lectures from class, it is irrefutable that the economic, social and political changes have created womens waged-labour as a highly central to familys or households survival at a time when the workplace inequality remains beside the unequal division of care and home responsibilities. While it is evident that majority of women have gotten the opportunity to enter the labor market, a divergence of the experiences has been observed. Appropriate policies and measures are passed to ensure that the social justice is achieved, and ultimately the social wellbeing.
Ways in which the cases serve as examples of how cities can act as places to experiment with solutions to social challenges
The case chose plays integral role in serving as an example of the manner in which the cities can work as the places whereby the solutions to social problems including the design of social reproduction, feminism, and labor regime. In the article, Pimlott uncovers the implications of the mothers churning through poor quality work so as to provide the younger family members. The case draws the attention to the manner in which the labor regime affects not just the working individuals but all families or the household members. According to the author, the decision to choose to participate or not with the labor market regarding social justice is a fundamental element of the feminist political theory (Pimlott 27). From the perception of children, it becomes evident that the integration of the employment into mothers is a strong solution to the urban households poverty problems. The quality of service, in this case, proves to be significant for the women, and their children, as well as the men. In the environment whereby the government rhetoric puts more emphasis on the role of the individuals in the success or failure in education and employment, many urban social structures continue to face the inequality. However, many governments have resorted to designing and implementing the policies that promote the in-work benefits, thereby increasing the access to state benefits.
Chapman, Laura, and John West-Burnham. Education for social justice: Achieving wellbeing for all. A&C Black, 2010.
MacLeavy, Julie. "En gendering New Labour's Workfarist Regime: Exploring the intersection of welfare state restructuring and labour market policies in the UK." Gender, Place and Culture 14.6 (2007): 721-743.
MacLeavy, Julie. "A new politics of austerity, workfare and gender? The UK coalition government's welfare reform proposals." Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society 4.3 (2011): 355-367.
Pimlott-Wilson, Helena. "Parental responsibility for paid employment and social reproduction: children's experiences in middle-class and working-class households in England" Environment and Planning A 47.9 (2015): 1892-1906.
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