The Information Society - Sociology Essay Example

Date:  2021-03-25 03:48:23
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Information Society is a term that is used to define the creation, distribution, integration, manipulation and use of information by society. The entire discipline can be looked at from an economic, social or even political perspectives. More than just a means of communication, information society is a cultural, economic and political activity. The manner in which this phenomenon manifest is dependent on certain factors, information and communication technologies being at the very top of this list. It is important to note that the economy, health, security, social welfare of said economy have seen a significant change with the explosion of technologies in communicating and information. The 21st century has seen Information Society radically redesign how people interact with each other, grow their food, treat their patients and even experience their own lives.

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There are a lot of factors that have led to the growth of information technology. Statistically, the average person in 1986 data capacity of persons that had access to digital data was 730 MB. This has since grown 60 times that amount. The generation of information a decade later and the amount of data that is produced by the second are beyond imagination. The 21st century has brought forth concepts like big data. Big data refers to the streams of data that pass through the different systems in firms. It is important to note that the concept of data management is has been in use for a considerable amount of time. The data streams that are passing through the internet and company networks barely stretch the surface over other devices. The smartphone, personal computer, and even motor vehicles all create data seamlessly throughout the day.

One of the most influential tools is Big Data. The occurrence of big data has been noted to be very pervasive. This pervasive nature is prime in Information Technology and its associated practices. Big data can be attributed to high-volume, high variety information assets and high-velocity transmission of the data. As digital business slowly takes priority over other traditional forms of doing business, big data is gaining an increasingly important part of doing business. Innovative and revolutionary concepts are being introduced in the different industry due to the use of bid data.

Big Data is one of the most dynamic concepts to be introduced to businesses. The products from this tool can be applied at different governance and operational levels in business to streamline the functions and quality of the process that a business uses. It also is able to realize solutions that are relevant in both time frame and context. Through big data products, the business is able to create new cost models; that can be applied to both analytic processing and storage models in a company.

Information Society is a relatively new concept. It is important to note that the differences in the way that information is created and distributed since the 1970s to date have radically changed other spheres of life. Information technology has transcended social, cultural boundaries creating ripples of paradimeF shifts in government administration, business management, marketing, accounting, science, logistics and transport among other fields. Information technology has grown in to one of the most significant drivers of societal development.

One of the first scholars to publish their works on Information Society was Fritz Machlup. His research on the effect of patents on research critiqued the production and distribution of knowledge. The book was later translated into Russian and Japanese. The issues surrounding information technology and its role in the lives of people and contemporary society became a focal point of the study. Some of the topics that are discussed are, informational economy, postindustrial society informational revolution. The industry of Knowledge was introduced by Frit Machlup and categorized into five major categories; education, research and development, mass media, information technologies and information services. Other concepts that are of interest in the field of information Society are the Communication Theory, Intellectual Property considerations, and corporate capitalism.

The expansion of information across all critical infrastructures of society has led many countries across the world to be more economically dependent on knowledge. The transition from an economy that is based on production, distribution, and sale of goods to one based on knowledge can be seen in the American Economy. This is a theory that has been explored by Peter Druker and Marc Port. The theory states that there are two stages of the information economy, the primary and secondary spheres. The primary sphere comprises of the information goods and services that are directly involved in the production, distribution, and processing of information. The secondary sector, on the other hand, looks into the informational services that are produced for the internal consumption by government and other non-informational organizations.

The Communication Theory

The communication theory is one of the widest studies theories in communication. The theory applied certain principles and tools from the information theory and mathematics. It also looks at the communication process of human beings. It is important to note that as a species, communication and language have been very significant factors that have set the human race apart from the rest of the animals on earth. The unique and complex mechanisms through which human interaction is experienced and advanced all studied in the Communication theory. Some of the concepts that are explored in the Communication theory include Factors affecting Telegraph speed, Transmission of Information and German Enigma codes in the Second World War.

Over the years, there have been several notable scholars that have pushed the study of communication to new horizons and platforms. People like Alan Turning, Ralph Hartle, and Harry Nyquist are some of the founders of the communication theory. As more persons have given the theory attention, several models of communication have been developed all with the aim of understanding and advancing human communication. The communication theory was coined by S. F. Scudder (1980); all living beings existing on the planet communicate. The existence of human begins as a race is dependent on the interactions that they form and the developments that come from these interactions. The applications of the communication theory have proven to be very important to understanding human nature, the inventions that have come and the future of the human race.

There are several viewpoints from which the communication theory can be looked at. The first is mechanistic, that is, communication is simply the transmission of information between two or more parties. There, however, must be a recipient and a sender of the message. The second sphere is psychological. The flow of information from a sender to receiver is more than just words or sounds. The psychological framework of communication means that the feelings and thoughts of the people that are communicating are reflected in the messages that they send. From a social perspective, the result of the interaction between the sender and the recipient affects the social viewpoint of all parties that are involved. The connotations that are implied and stated in the message accept the different perceptions that are formed in the societal matrices that people form in different views. The fourth perceptions from which the communication theory can be analyzed is the systemic framework. This refers to the difference in meaning that the recipient of the message creates upon reading the messages. It is important to note that the message is not the information that is sent but rather the meaning that is derived. Lastly, the critical framework states that communication is a mechanism through which persons express themselves and how that expression assumes authority among other people.

Corporate Capitalism

Information Technology is one of the most pervasive industries of the twenty-first century. The applications of the trade have been more than efficient and cost saving. It is rapidly becoming, if not already, the backbone of communications. With the internet as its main vein, there are applications as diverse as video conferencing and social networking that has become the primary means of communication. The users of the internet have been exploited, in business, education, medicine and even government. It is because of the value of the internet to the world that cybersecurity is a very important sphere of Information Technology. It is important to note that the internet was developed in the United States of America. The country has therefore been the forerunner in information technology. Companies like Google and Oracle, are based in the United States. They are also responsible for the consistent development of the industry. The impact of the information technology-driven companies in the United States is felt on a global scale.

The pervasive nature of the internet is one of the most powerful and arguably the most detrimental features of Information Technology in the country. The applications are incorporated to different levels of administration, economy, and society. Some of the largest benefactors of the use of the Information Society are the military and the corporate world. Corporate capitalism is a term that is used to define structures surrounding business organizations, the beaurocracy architecture of the internal organizations and the mechanisms of management of these organizations. Looking at the two mechanisms through which Information Society can be critiqued, both primary and secondary sectors of the information Economy are represented. The primary sphere comprises of the information goods and services that are directly involved in the production, distribution, and processing of information; one such example if E-Commerce.

E-Commerce has become one of the most influential drivers of economies across the world. The increase in traffic for online retailers and companies in all industry continue to grow exponentially. In the last decade, industries like Application development to Fashion continue to increase their online presence. The effect of this E-Commerce wave has been felt in different countries as their economies grow exponentially. One of the most influential factors that continue to encourage this growth is the global need to become technologically literate. As the world turns towards this new direction, there are many factors that test the legitimacy and importance of E-Commerce as an alternative form of trade and weigh its benefits alongside the disadvantages of employing this method of communication.

A study in 2014 revealed that the E-Commerce scene in China realized 12.3 Renminbi (RMB). This figure was approximately a 21.3% increase from the previous year, 2013. The Economic significance of this increase cannot be ignored. Another benefit that comes from this growth is the need for diversity and timelessness of the products and services that are provided, a result that pushes the industry to greater heights.

Three primary functions have been noted to stem from the use of E-Commerce as a method of trade. The first is that businesses can achieve information exchange, logistical analysis, online payments and sales activity from a central point of view to a greater market compared to traditional trade. These are the basic functions of any business. The second function that E-Commerce has been able to exhibit are financial analysis, market research, and informed business planning. This is an intermediary fu...

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