The results of this particular study were derived from the study's sample which consisted of a total of 13 United States military veterans who had initially began a career in teaching right after they were diagnosed with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). More specifically, the current study consisted of participants who had spent approximately 16 years in the military service. With regard to the overall data collection process the participants of the study were required to rate both their general and psychological health. Besides, the participants were of different demographic characteristics and varying educational levels. For instance, the required age of the participants was between 25 and 60 years and the overall participant population consisted of six females and seven males, with 10 of them being of an African American descent, one white, one Hispanic and the last one was a Korean-American. Finally, all the male participants were combat veterans.
With reference to the data and the information used in the current study, each piece of literature was appraised based on the purpose of the study, the research questions and finally, the research problem. Besides, the sample selection, ethical issues, literature search and review, research design and data collected were put into consideration (Puetz, Youngstedt & Herring, 2015).
Analysis of the Data
The qualitative thematic analysis of data was used in the current study. More specifically, the data interviews were qualitatively analysed with the aim to find out both the experiences and the perceptions of all the combat veterans who were diagnosed with PTSD. Of all the 13 participants, 11 of them had substantial first-hand information as well as perception regarding the topic on Post Traumatic disorder.
According to the current study, PSTD was also commonly referred to as shell shock or combat fatigue. The results showed that PSTD among the veterans resulted from experiencing or in most cases, witnessing traumatic events either directly or indirectly. Despite the fact that the study indicated that the disease is not just limited to veterans, the military participants who participated in the study substantiated that military personnel experience PSTD almost four-fold as compared to non-military personnel. In particular, the results indicated 8% of non-military men against 36% of the veterans. Also, PSTD was found to be an amalgam of various symptoms, duration, and severity. For instance, with reference to a contention made by the American Psychiatric Association, the diagnosis of PSTD is based upon four symptom categories, intrusive symptoms, negative feelings, thoughts, avoidance of reminders, reactivity symptoms, and arousal symptoms among many others (Ahern, Worthen, Masters, Lippman, Ozer & Moos, 2015).
This current study had various limitations that biased the results. For instance, various limitations were observed in the adequacy of reporting as well as the methodological rigor. Besides, the geographical scope of the various participants was another limitation that was observed from this study. Initially, as the researchers commenced the study, it was presumed that the initial sample size would offer sufficient saturation of the overall outcome. However, following the limitations of the study, the results saturation was small and relative to the number of veteran teachers who were diagnosed with depression and PSTD. This being said, the results of the study were not necessarily generalizable to other populations. Additionally, various other limitations included threats to validity. For instance, some of the participants, veteran teachers, were found to share their everyday experiences. This, in essence, had negative impacts in the sense that it affected the diversity of the data collected. Also, various trials that were conducted did not provide adequate information about various features of the intervention especially those regarding the medication use and also the compliance to the prescribed pharmacotherapy. Similarly, other trials were biased since they did not make use of the most well-validated outcome measures that were available throughout the study.
The primary delimitations of the study were considered as the specific narrow and specific scope of the study. In this particular study, there was a possibility that a more geographically or professionally varied sample would yield results that were completely different from the results from the current study. Another significant delimitation in this study was based on the choice of the secondary school teachers owing to the fact that the depression/PSTD-diagnosed veterans were also teachers at either the elementary of the higher education levels. In particular, an examination of a similar population would give additional insights.
Based on the findings of this study, it is evident that PSTD is a pervasive problem in the United States, combat veterans. Concerning the condition, veterans reported experiencing various depressive symptoms as well as instances of concurrent anxiety. With regard to the current study, the readmission projects are essential since they can be used increase the patients' awareness as well as empowering them. On the other hand, the implications of the study will include the participation of the patients as a means of supplementing the provision of care in the hospitals. More specifically, this will be inclusive of increased veteran understanding as well as improved levels of participation in self-care. Despite the fact that PTSD has previously proven various pharmacotherapies, the current study provides evidence that suggests the severity of depressive symptoms. In the same vein, this also acts as a concurrent treatment for the PTSD symptoms amongst the veterans.
The study suggests that those veterans suffering from PTSD/depression ought to practice taking ownership and control of the students that they teach in spite of their condition. Besides, the findings of the study suggest that they should embrace the various challenges that are associated with both their profession and their PSTD condition. In a nutshell, the research indicates that there is a great need for PSTD suffering veterans to increase their knowledge on the expected mental conditions (Hoge, Grossman, Auchterlonie, Riviere, Milliken & Wilk, 2014). Also, the veterans ought to realize that suffering from the PSTD should not be a hindrance to their new lives. Instead, they should be accorded more attention that is intended to redirect their focus away from their past life-changing experiences. On the other hand, the society, as well as the nurse practitioners should realize that one of the primary aspects of living with a mental disorder is the shame and the stigma that is associated with the conditions as well as the obstructions that result from it (Phelan & Link, 2013).
Ahern, J., Worthen, M., Masters, J., Lippman, S. A., Ozer, E. J., & Moos, R. (2015). The challenges of Afghanistan and Iraq Veterans' transition from military to civilian life and approaches to Reconnection. PLOS ONE, 10(7), e0128599. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0128599
Collins, B., Dilger, R. J., Dortch, C., Kapp, L., Lowry, S., & Perl, L. (2014). Employment for veterans: Trends and programs. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service.
Hoge, C. W., Grossman, S. H., Auchterlonie, J. L., Riviere, L. A., Milliken, C. S., & Wilk, J. E. (2014). PTSD treatment for soldiers after combat deployment: Low utilization of mental health care and reasons for dropout. Psychiatric Services, 65(8), 997-1004. doi: 10.1176/appi.ps.201300307
Phelan, J. C., & Link, B. G. (2013). Stigma as a Fundamental Cause of Population Health Inequalities. American Journal of Public Health, 103(5), 813-821. doi:10.2105/ajph.2012.301069
Puetz, T. W., Youngstedt, S. D., & Herring, M. P. (2015). Effects of Pharmacotherapy on Combat-Related PTSD, Anxiety, and Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-Regression Analysis. PLOS ONE, 10(5), e0126529. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0126529
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