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AcknowledgementsI would like to first and foremost thank God, the Almighty for giving me the strength to continue the path of learning. I would like to also thank my mother who stood by my side from the beginning of my venture especially with the passing of my father at an early age of my life (may the Almighty shower him with mercy), Also my wife, and siblings who supported me unconditionally with emotional support in order to complete my research. I would also like to thank my kids who could not wait for their father to finish as it took away time from them.
I would like to thank my dissertation supervisor Katy Mann for providing me with all the support and guidance throughout this crucial stage in the program. I would like to also thank the module leader Joelle Godard for always making sure I was aware of what I needed to do every step of the way. Furthermore, I would like to express my gratitude to all my previous module instructors, Kim Willis, Joanne Sweeney, Neil Johnson, Jakub Mincewicz, and Katy Mann.
Finally, I am grateful to all my colleagues for all their support and valuable contributions. Last but not least, to all the teachers who contributed not only to this study but to previous studies as well, I would like to thank you all!
AbstractInteractive whiteboards (IWBs) are some of the most recent technological educational tools that are intended to increase quality and educational standards and increase the efficiency of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers' delivery. In Saudi Arabia, the tool has been in use in most academic levels. However, there has been no follow-ups on its impact and its deliverables on key performance indicators. There is limited information on how teachers are embracing the tool as part of their classroom practices as well as their overall perceptions about it. There were 15 EFL teachers that was used for this particular research who had prior interaction with the IWBs system to evaluate their perceptions on the tool, their interactions, training, and how these aspects correlated. A quantitative questionnaire was used to interview the teachers. This study sought, among other things, the number of years the instructors had used IWBs, the years of experience, how they interacted with the systems, and the overall impacts of the system in the classroom. I found that the majority of the teachers were positive that IWBs had efficiently increased their classroom experience. The study found a significant correlation between the perception of the teacher on IWBs and the quality and quantity of training they had received. The research concluded with the improvement of training EFL teachers with the tool and duration of interaction with the system helps the perception and acceptance of IWBs in EFL classrooms.
Table of Content
TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u Acknowledgements PAGEREF _Toc19799437 \h 2Abstract PAGEREF _Toc19799438 \h 3Chapter 1 PAGEREF _Toc19799439 \h 51.0 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc19799440 \h 51.1 Background Information PAGEREF _Toc19799441 \h 51.2 Statement of the Problem PAGEREF _Toc19799442 \h 81.2.1 Pedagogical Approaches Supported by IWBs PAGEREF _Toc19799443 \h 91.2.2 IWBs and Teacher Perceptions PAGEREF _Toc19799444 \h 101.3 Study Purpose PAGEREF _Toc19799445 \h 101.4 Research Questions PAGEREF _Toc19799446 \h 11Chapter 2: Literature Review PAGEREF _Toc19799447 \h 122.1 Technology and Modern Education PAGEREF _Toc19799448 \h 122.2 Modern Classroom Learning Environment PAGEREF _Toc19799449 \h 142.3 Challenges of IWBs in Saudi Arabian Institutions PAGEREF _Toc19799450 \h 152.4 Implementation of IWBs PAGEREF _Toc19799451 \h 162.5 Theoretical Perspective PAGEREF _Toc19799452 \h 192.6 Communication and IWB Use PAGEREF _Toc19799453 \h 202.7 Interventions for Gaps in IWB Adoption PAGEREF _Toc19799454 \h 22Chapter 3: Methodology PAGEREF _Toc19799455 \h 243.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc19799456 \h 243.2 Brief Overview of EFL teachers' Perception on the effectiveness of using Interactive Whiteboards PAGEREF _Toc19799457 \h 243.3 Research Question PAGEREF _Toc19799458 \h 243.4 Setting PAGEREF _Toc19799459 \h 253.5 The Participants PAGEREF _Toc19799460 \h 263.5.1 Instructor PAGEREF _Toc19799461 \h 263.5.2 Researcher PAGEREF _Toc19799462 \h 273.6 Piloting the Study PAGEREF _Toc19799463 \h 273.7 Conducting the Study PAGEREF _Toc19799464 \h 283.8 Data Collection Instruments PAGEREF _Toc19799465 \h 293.8.1 Instructor questionnaire and Interview PAGEREF _Toc19799466 \h 293.9 Processing and Analysis of Data PAGEREF _Toc19799467 \h 32Chapter 4: Results and Discussions PAGEREF _Toc19799468 \h 344.1 Restatement of the Research Question PAGEREF _Toc19799469 \h 344.2 Sample Demographics PAGEREF _Toc19799470 \h 344.2 Summary of Findings and Discussions PAGEREF _Toc19799471 \h 364.3 Analysis of Perception of SA teachers on the effectiveness of using IWBs PAGEREF _Toc19799472 \h 364.3.1 Analysis of IWBs Usefulness PAGEREF _Toc19799473 \h 374.3.2 Analysis of Acceptance of IWBS in Teaching PAGEREF _Toc19799474 \h 384.3.3 Analysis of IWBs Mastery among Teachers PAGEREF _Toc19799475 \h 384.3.4 Analysis of Mental and Learning Effort PAGEREF _Toc19799476 \h 394.4 Implications of Findings on Learner Training PAGEREF _Toc19799477 \h 534.5 Limitations of the Study PAGEREF _Toc19799478 \h 55Chapter 5 PAGEREF _Toc19799479 \h 605.1 Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc19799480 \h 605.2 Recommendations for Further Research PAGEREF _Toc19799481 \h 62Bibliography and References PAGEREF _Toc19799482 \h 66Appendix PAGEREF _Toc19799483 \h 71Appendix 1: Data Presentation PAGEREF _Toc19799484 \h 71Appendix 2: Questionnaire PAGEREF _Toc19799485 \h 73Teachers' Perception on the effectiveness of using IWBs in Common First Year Classroom. PAGEREF _Toc19799486 \h 73
Chapter 11.0 Introduction
The modern-day technological equipment has significantly changed the educational framework through academic and research developments. The part played by traditional learning in the educational process and its significance for the teachers and the students is undeniable since it would seem unreasonable to deny the use of technology in teaching (Morris, 2011). The interest in using technology in education has been growing, particularly in EFL classrooms. The fact that the present technologies have gained recognition globally for their success in supporting EFL teachers has seen various countries such as the Saudi Arabia looking into significant e-learning tools. E-learning has become a fundamental part of teaching and learning in classrooms around the world. (Ahmad, Ali, Sipra, & Hassan Taj, 2017). This dissertation seeks to identify the teacher's perceptions of the effectiveness of using IWBs in a Saudi Arabian University as an education tool.
1.1 Background Information
The interactive whiteboard is one of many different technologies of e-learning. An interactive whiteboard, also known as a smartboard, is an interactive display in the format of a whiteboard that connects to a computer and projector. The interactive whiteboard technology allows the creation of collaborative and interactive lessons by creating a combination of resources with the teacher's ability to manipulate and move objects (Isman, Abanmy, Hussein, & Al Saadany, 2012). Further, the interactive whiteboard allows the teacher to undertake many roles and benefits such as linking educational content with video and web resources. In most cases, the interactive whiteboards are viewed as a combination of the traditional teaching models and aids such as the television, whiteboard, video, overhead projectors, and other CD players used in the EFL classroom setup. The use of the interactive whiteboard or instruction is also catalyzing shifting traditional teaching to an interactive modern one (Gashan & Alshumaimeri, 2015).
Correspondingly, modern technologies have been widely used amongst the new generation, particularly in the universities due to the ease and ability to manipulate content in the whiteboard (Batarfi, 2018). Also, with the effectiveness in the use of IWBs, it has caused a paradigm shift in education due to the emphasis on new parameters in schools with user-generated content, personalization, and collaboration. According to data and figures from the Communication and Information Technology Commission (CITC), it confirms that the use of technology, the internet, and the computer have significantly grown in Saudi Arabia (Ahmad, Waqar, & Ali, 2019). The Statistical reports as of 2000, only 0.9% of the population in Saudi Arabia had access to the new communication services and the internet. However, as of 2016, the use of technology in general increased drastically to 64.7% of the Saudi Arabia population (Ahmad et al., 2019). With the details on the growth, it substantiates the claim that technology has become applicable in every life activity, particularly in education. In the past, there were a limited number of computers available in university campuses; however, now that is not the case (Ahmad et al., 2019).
Today, modern technology in the universities. According to Ahmad et al. (2019), the Saudi Government has been spending a significant amount of money at around 13% of the GDP annually. In consideration of the EFL teachers' perception on the effectiveness of IWB, the lack of motivation is that Saudi EFL learners are among the significant factors for the lack of effectiveness in the usage of such devises (Ahmad et al., 2019). Similarly, the Saudi EFL learners' difficulties in grasping the appropriate vocabulary are among other factors leading to the lack of effectiveness. Amongst EFL teachers there are different perceptions concerning the use appropriateness of using IWB (Alabbasi, 2017). Undeniably, the new generation of technological developments has delivered different expectations concerning how learning should be practiced and how it could impact the learning process (Ahmad, Ali, Sipra, & Hassan Taj 2017). With the developing and growing technology, teaching and learning have become an integral part of using IWBs in EFL classrooms whereby development in knowledge, culture pedagogy, and technological advancements is vital for the EFL teachers (Ahmad et al., 2017). Despite the massive and rapid shift from white or blackboards, in Saudi Arabia, teachers' in general are still in need of appropriate training when it comes to technology in the classroom.
The use of the IWBs, EFL teachers can bring the outside world in the classroom teaching through the web. It means that the teacher bears the primary responsibility to ensure the success of the IWBs since the road to success in education is based on the teacher's ability and attitude to navigate instruction and managing the class in beneficial ways. In as much as the interactive whiteboard is useful in different ways, the various challenges that teachers face impact their attitude and perceptions concerning the effectiveness of the technology in the classroom setup (Ahmad et al., 2017). In most cases, students would rather have the chance to interact with computers and work on them because they are efficient. As the use of IWB as an instructional tool increases student learning capacity, contribute to the understanding of the contents and interacting between students and teachers, the effectiveness is based on the ability of EFL teachers to consider it as beneficial based on their perceptions and attitude towards the technolo...
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