President Richard Nixon had a clear picture from the publics' view seen as an individual who centered on ensuring the best interest of the United States. Berkowitz who served under Carter had the privilege to view the aftermath and effects of Nixon at its full extent. From Berkowitz, Nixon always ensured that everything worked right with him. This virtue depicted from his installation of audio recording at the oval house. Therefore, on the leak of sensitive information to the press, the President instructs the generation of a cleanup group to find all the holes (Berkowitz 72). From Schulman's view, this time of instability depicted the President as of weak decisions as he made drastic changes in his government. He wasn't concerned about what the actions he did would bring to the public and opinion. This also worsened when the President resigned from office (Schulman 56).
Watergate marked a most dramatic period in American history as the President surged into a scandal that left him politically paralyzed. Berkowitz describes the connection of Nixon to the scandal due to his quick response to cover up all that happened. The provision of funding from the CRP is a clear indication of how the President was involved. Nixon's decision to withhold the tapes from the Senate was to Bruce a sign of guilt and involvement in the Watergate scandal. The act of trying to create a different public image when he had wronged the public is an act of selfishness from the President. The most memorable time for Edward Berkowitz during the Nixon administration was during the investigation. By sending home several of his legislators is a sign of lack of love for his country, the President depicted a manifestation of self-centeredness. Bruce shows the record set by Nixon during his leadership was resigning from power. He remains the only President in American History to ever take action (Schulman 70).
In what ways did the scandal lead to reform in Congress, and what does Berkowiz identify as the "ironies of congressional reform."
The effects of Watergate Scandal are some of the most felt ever. The aftermath of this saw the most significant loss of trust in the Presidency by the public. To ensure that the public regained their confidence in the government was one of the most important goals at the moment. To do this, the Senate ensured they played a very open role by unraveling all the connections that took place at the time. Several involved parties received imprisonment for their acts and the power vested on the Presidency reduced.
The actions of legislators to ensure the wrongdoers are entirely responsible, and get justice for their actions, played an essential part in returning the public trust. Protection of personal information is added to ensure the provision of privacy; this was a response to the bugging of phones and access to medical knowledge. There was a prompt to pass laws that provided the use of federal funds was managed to ensure transparency in the government. However, this wasn't the case as many other times, and this law abandoned, hence the "ironies of congressional reforms" (Berkowitz 98).
Leaving the country at its most desperate state, the predecessors of President had a hard time to ensure they restore trust. On assuming office, Ford swore to the American People that he would never lie. This act helped him win the election, but he had a hard time after pardoning the former President. The people saw him as an accomplice of Nixon, and this didn't work well with his leadership. Ford had a poor relationship with Congress, which made things even harder for him to take the mandate.
On the other hand, Carter had to deal with a terrible state of unrest due to the economic crash. He falls to an awkward situation of dealing with a devastating state of inflation. The President tried various ways to ensure that the rising unemployment among the citizen. The rise forced the President to figure ways out to ensure the issue is in control. The turn of events led to the President resolving to the cut of taxes to ensure the economy is back. He worked various relations with foreign countries to restore the relationships. The level of doubt whether the government was indeed able to keep the people rose during this and gave rise to conservatism.
After the exposure of what the government was doing behind the scenes, various American resolved to promote the isolation of government from interfering with their lives. This time was the period when the people moved for more conservative laws which ensured they are safe from any manipulation. This time saw the implementation of laws to protect access to private information and the removal of many politicians who were thought to be affected by the events. The Presidency during this time lost its extraordinary powers and freedom.
The credit for change and rise of conservatism is to the decrease in morals, which include the Watergate Scandal. Due to the observation by the public that the leadership longer centered in ensuring that the nation on a correct path, various groups formed to provide the restore morality in American politics. Kalman cites that the significant reason for the drastic rise of conservatism is the drop in honesty as seen by the way the government held the security of the people and how they made the decision (Kalman 62). The failure of the Nixon regime was just but the beginning of doubt in the American people. It is during this time that various politicians such as Regan rose to question the way the government treated the citizens.
Several signs about the governments' lack of humanity are tested during this time. The high taxes, removal of teaching from a Christian perspective in schools by the Supreme Court, and the discovery of abuse of power all lead to the loss of trust in the government. The conservatives then started advocating for the limitation of the federal power and the reduction of taxes so that the typical citizen would be able to provide for themselves a quality life. These groups also advocated for the removal of some laws that compromised the nature of Christianity, such as legalizing abortion. In conclusion, this period saw a high rate of conservatism due to the escalated lack of trust in government and administration (Berkowitz 68).
Compare and contrast the way Berkowitz writes about Ford and Carter (especially in chapters 4 and 6) to Kalman's approach
Berkowitz describes the way Carter and Ford face a hard time of restoring the previous state from the citizens' perspective. Events about Cater and Ford, according to Berkowitz, are centered at the way the actions of the previous administration affected the view of the people. At hand is the hard task to ensure that the trust once laid at the hands of government is back. On the other hand, Kalman's view is on the way the leaders can manage the effects of poor management and the way they view the possible ways to get through the tempting period. For him, the objective is to ensure they have the ultimate trust of the Americans and good relation with the foreign states. Characterization at Something Happened is similar to those in the Right Star Rising in that they are a narration of real events explained by individuals who were present during the time of the occurrence.
By comparison, the description is set to ensure the reader is informed and can derive various factors that affected the circumstances during the time. However, how Berkowitz is more controversial as he gives his account of the events. His opinions about the actions of President Nixon is explicit, and he gives his personal view about how the activities affected the fabric of society and gave rise to other events such as the rise of leaders who supported the introduction of conservatism. The detailed historical account by Berkowitz does justice to the events during the period of after the resignation of Nixon. It works to produce a clear image of all the variables that play a part during the time (Berkowitz 70).
Pose a question at the end of your post on the reading
According to your view, what do you think would have been the best action for President Nixon to take on the discovery that his actions against the nation were out? How could this action affect the leadership of his predecessors?
Berkowitz, Edward D. Something happened: a political and cultural overview of the seventies. Columbia University Press, 2007.
Schulman, Bruce J. The seventies: The great shift in American culture, society, and politics. Simon and Schuster, 2001.
Collins, Robert M. "Laura Kalman. Right Star Rising: A New Politics, 1974-1980." The American historical review 117.5 (2012): 1626-1626.
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