Part 1 - Week 5: The relationship between the environment and development
Environmental conservation has remained a controversial debate for many decades among environmentalist. Globally, human population has drastically increased, and there is more development to meet the needs of the current community. Sustainable development has been defined as any development that meets the requirements of the present population without compromising the future generation to meet their own needs. The principle aims at meeting the needs of people and all human development goals while sustaining the ability of the natural resources to provide for the needs. The natural resources including ecosystem services where the society and economy depend on must be utilized sustainably. The main goals of sustainable development are that the community should not undermine the integrity and ability of the natural system. The needs of the future generation should not be compromised, and any development should conserve the environment. It is imperative to consider economic, social and environmental protection for the coming generation. The population in Vietnam has increased significantly, and more developmental projects are initiated such as the construction of houses, manufacturing of goods, clearing of land for settlement and agriculture.
Unsustainable development has led to more pollution and global warming causing climate change. Climate change has remained the biggest threat to the environment leading to drought, floods, and hunger. Vietnam has been known for technological advancement in the manufacturing of weapons. The weapons are manufactured and tested within the territory leading to pollution. Besides, the country has invested more in infrastructure by constructing modern houses, rails, airports, roads, and bridges. Vietnam is also producing a lot of energy, and the government has implemented climate change policies to curb the impacts. The development has caused adverse impacts on the environment resulting in global warming. Climate change has caused severe effects on the environment, and Vietnam has been experiencing droughts, floods, and various diseases as a result of pollution during human development. There is need to have strict environmental policies and corporate social responsibility.
Maintenance of ecological system is imperative and should be taken into consideration. The environmental system is protected through the sustainable use of natural resources. There is need to plant more trees, protect the coastal regions including reeds and other organisms. Environmental policies and laws should be put into practice. It is everyone's responsibility to protect and conserve the ecosystem. Sustainable use of natural resources is vital and includes reduce, re-use and recycle. The resources should be used sustainable considering the future generation. Unsustainable use of natural resources leads to depletion, and there are needs for conservation. Maintenance of bio-diversity is done continuously through replacement and sustainable use.
Corporate social responsibility policies and practices are critical in promoting the well-being of members of the society through contributing to sustainable development via improving the social, economic and environmental benefits to all relevant stakeholders CSR describes the efforts made by a corporation to enhance the society's well-being. CSR is policies and practices that are essential for achieving sustainable development by ensuring firms that carry out businesses in an ethical manner. Discretionary or philanthropic CSR is one of the four-dimensional frameworks of corporate social responsibility and plays a vital role in promoting the social welfare of the society. Discretionary CSR is the most beneficial form of corporate social responsibility to the society after economic, legal and ethical CSRs. Discretionary or philanthropic is a self-directed and concerted effort that is undertaken by companies to contribute various resources towards the communities to better the quality of their life. Philanthropic responsibility is the practice of donating resources by corporates to the society. The resources improve the social, educational, cultural and recreational aspects of the community members.
Discretionary responsibility should be practiced according to the needs of the society. Philanthropic authorities are aimed at promoting the welfare of the community and also enhancing their economic status through donations from the companies.
Beresford, Melanie, and Angie Ngoc Tran, eds. Reaching for the dream: Challenges of sustainable development in Vietnam. Vol. 33. NIAS Press, 2004.
Dang, Hanh H., Axel Michaelowa, and Dao D. Tuan. "Synergy of adaptation and mitigation strategies in the context of sustainable development: the case of Vietnam." Climate policy 3 (2003): S81-S96.
Dempsey, Nicola, Glen Bramley, Sinead Power, and Caroline Brown. "The social dimension of sustainable development: Defining urban social sustainability." Sustainable development 19, no. 5 (2011): 289-300.
Giddings, Bob, Bill Hopwood, and Geoff O'Brien. "Environment, economy and society: fitting them together into sustainable development." Sustainable development 10, no. 4 (2002): 187-196.
Huque, Ahmed Shafiqul., and Habib Zafarullah. Managing Development in a Globalized World: Concepts; Processes; Institutions. Auerbach Publications, 2012.
Part 2 - Week 7: The relationship between society, gender, and development
Vietnamese women constitute to about 51% of the total population in Vietnam. Women are respected in the country and represent 50% of the workforce. Women have been arguably given more respect and dignity in Vietnam compared to other countries in the world. The country used to be a matriarchy and have the highest number of great women as heroines. Vietnamese women are holding some of the highest positions and authorities. They are not regarded as weaker sex by men and seen the most resilient. Women are viewed and strong-willed and working harder than men. Vietnamese adopted the Confucian principle and still granted women various opportunities in the society. The constitution grants women equal rights across all spheres. Globally, controversial debate on gender inequality in the community has been an issue for many decades, and gender has been considered as a societal structure rather than biological concept. The society does not consider equality between women and men. Culture and tradition cause gender inequality disparity in many ways. The societal way of life is the determinant factor in the way people live and interact as well as their roles in the society. Tradition can be termed as a custom and belief of a community and women are considered inferior before men. Women see themselves lesser and inferior to men. Gender inequality causes negative impacts on women's development. Women are seen as housekeepers and should be at home taking of children. The effect of gender inequality is diverse, and women are left out in many things such as participation in a senior leadership position, legislative seats, policies and decision makings. Lack of empowerment has also led to gender inequality.
Gender and sexuality remain an important concept in the society. The understanding cultural diversity of different groups is essential in today's society. Sexual identity differs, and the mainstream should be well accepted in the society depending on the individual decision. Bisexual and transgender persons have received a universal denial and discrimination. Lesbianism, gay, bisexuality and transgender have remained a great concern under sexuality and gender-based discussion globally. Contrary, Non-LGBTQ persons are perceived differently by the community. Lesbians, gays, bisexuals, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) and the Non-LGBTQ have been greatly researched and bring a lot of controversy regarding acceptance among communities. Understanding gender and sexuality play vital role in the society. Human rights activists have remained firm on the importance of equality and accepting the LGBTQ groups. The discrimination and intimidation to the individuals in the group of LGBT have brought a lot of concern among nations globally with some disowning the reality and practice of LGBT. The addition of "Q" to the term has remained controversial as many researchers do not agree with terms about gender identity. The impacts of the current and historical events, policies regarding health care and provide services in both the LGBT and Non-LGBT are diverse. The perception towards LGBT regarding cultural diversity has received negative impacts from many people across the world. The historical events were based on Non-LGBT as people were only allowed and expected to have sexual relationships with the opposite sex as compared to the current events that will enable and recognize the LBGTQ groups.
Cultural diversity is embraced today as compared to the olden days when there were condemnation and discrimination towards LGBTQ. The dynamics arising between sexual and identity about cultural perception is experienced to date across the world. The historical events allowed men to get married to women only and not homosexuality. Heterosexuality was considered as the accepted sexual relation, and those involved in homosexuality were highly condemned by the society and views differently. Gender diversity concept about LGBT and Non-LGBT has brought a lot of controversy in gender-based cultural practice among many scholars, activists, media, constitution, laws, human rights, policies, and governments.
Gender inequality and gender roles have many consequences on the society. Women who are seen as inferior to men and their rights have been violated in many ways. There is gender inequality at workplaces, schools, homes, colleges, politics, university and many other sectors. Women are not being given equal treatment at work or during employment. The society is still discriminating women in many ways, and men are taking advantage of women. Gender violence and other discrimination cases still witnessed today, and there is a need for a change of attitude towards women. Parents must treat children. Equally, both girls and boys are essential in a family. Girls should be allowed to part in decision making and allowed to take part development activities. Gender violence and discrimination are some of the problems caused by gender inequality. Resources should be divided equally, and all sex should be entitled their rights accordingly.
The stereotype has been defined as having a belief about a particular group of individuals, community, race or a nation while prejudice is the feeling about the individuals based on their group membership. Both stereotypes and bias may be positive or negative attitude or discrimination towards the group members. Stereotypes and prejudice are mostly seen in racial discrimination between the blacks and whites, sexual and gender discrimination. Equality should be exercised across all sectors starting from employment, workplaces, politics, and education. Discrimination at the workplace has led to lack of jobs, unfair dismissal, and underpayment. People are categorized based on race, ethnicity, religion, gender, and sex. Besides, social exclusion has also contributed to discrimination in learning institutions and human interaction. The disadvantaged members in most cases are vulnerable in the society. These people are considered powerless, and they are the women and other minority groups. Leadership has been defined as the ability to influence people and lead them towards achieving specific goals and objectives. Women have been underrepresented for many decades in political positions. Men dominance in politics has created negative perspectives on women's political ambition. Many studie...
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