REDD is a project that was first negotiated under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in the year 2005. The primary objective or mission of coming up with the plan was to be able to mitigate all the cases of climate change by ensuring that there was a reduction in the emissions that came in the form of greenhouse gases. This involves taking part in the enhancement of forest management especially in the countries that are still developing. Some decisions made under REDD were made witnessed in the year 2013 and ended in the year 2015 at a time when they had to put them down in the rulebook.
International Efforts in Strengthening Climate Governance and Finance
Researchers have conducted studies to find out the extent to which the forests have been degraded and the rate at which the greenhouse emissions are affecting the environment. The results show that about 29% of the greenhouse gases are emitted yearly, and this affects the climate change rate which will not be easy to control if it gets out of hand (Gabriele, 1996, p2281). In that case, the intention of reducing the emissions and also taking part in better land use has been a way of trying to meet all the objectives that have been set by United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
The idea and issue of international climate governance have become complex as most countries are now finding ways of ensuring that the climate is conducive to human survival. Many usually are not sure about the initiatives that they have put in place especially when they realize that the funds are not enough to make everything possible. For instance, some countries have opted to make use of regulatory instruments which are backed up by some market-based solutions that include the use of the 1997 Kyoto Protocol (Gabriele, 1996, p2281).
Some of the other efforts that have put in place to deal with the issue of climate governance and finance have been seen the proliferation of some specialized institutions that operate on an international basis while at the same dealing with the issue of climate change. In that case, there have been institutional fragmentations to ensure that each of them has a mission to accomplish when it comes to getting funds what will be used in providing an assurance that the greenhouses gases are reduced to a great extent. In addition to this, most international institutions are now beginning to realize that climate change is a serious issue and therefore needs to be put in place for sustainable development (Gabriele, 1996, p2281). This involves taking part in agriculture and also asking for more action from other sectors.
The other international efforts when it comes to climate governance have been experienced in the form of partnerships that are created daily in various countries and foreign clubs. The main aim, in this case, is to mitigate the instances of climate change and also learn how to adapt to climate-resilient development. The transitional actions that come in this form are therefore aiming at doing global governance of the climate and also making sure that all the negations that were established under UNFCCC are fulfilled. This comes because numbers of scholars have realized that partnerships and fragmentation of polycentric approaches have become more coherent in top-down initiative or by the use of monocentric governance systems.
The international efforts that focus on climate finance can be looked from the perspective of bodies such as UN which has sections that deal with the funds that are collected and aside from the management of climate. The most effective action, in this case, was seen at the time when there was a meeting in Paris to discuss some of the ways the climate would be managed by not only making practical actions by also collecting funds on how to make everything real and possible. In that case, some countries have set aside a kitty where funds are collected after every month to be able to implement all the initiatives that have been put in place when it comes to governance of climate change. For instance, the International Climate Change (ICC) committees have tried hard to make sure that countries are self-sufficient financially so that any command or rule that comes from the UN can be fulfilled without delay or compromise of any nature.
The past few years have shown the emergence of different forms of transnational climate actions which have raised some controversies and questions on whether the fragmentations that come due to climate change governance are real and applicable. This has led to some conflicts that arise between regimes that complain of the infinity that comes out of the transactional costs. There are also some Non-State actions that have led to public response acts that are currently seen to take part in unwarranted governance and privatization of all sorts (Gabriele, 1996, p2281). Therefore, there has been a need to be able to better all the transnational and international bodies as a way of encouraging the non-state actors to be able to make all the contributions that they have towards governance of the climate and making it be at the right state and nature.
Some scholars have been able to come up with international suggestions on how the climate can be governed and also financed for a better future. For instance, Gabriele (1996) stated that there was a need to come up with a registry that would be used to recognize all the non-state efforts when it comes to climate change mitigation initiatives. They also added that there is a need to identify actions of the small bodies that take part in creating awareness on some of the ways the climate can be kept at the right state without having to cut down trees that would, later on, leave the land bare. The idea of sharing knowledge and also maintaining a legit form of transparency was also a suggestion that came from the scholars as they needed to see an internationally recognizable act concerning climate change financing.
After all the suggestions were put across, others such as Bashmakov (1996) stated that all the registry made out of recognizing the non-state claimed governance bodies should be embedded to form a better or comprehensive framework that will be able to mobilize further actions. The new bodies will then be able to take part in information exchange and creating networks that will help them in getting funds for issues related to climate change mitigation. The bodies will also be a partisan of ensuring that the quality of the data is high and will be at the best position to verify the subnational initiatives that have been put in place as a way of taking part in international climate governance.
Potential Shaping of Future of Climate and Clean Energy
The international efforts aimed at mitigating climate change seem to be beneficial when looked from the perspective of the future implications. The efforts have been put across to be able to have clean energy and also a climate that is conducive to human survival. Some of the initiatives that have been put in place are in the form of Kyoto Protocol, the Paris Agreement and also the REDD initiatives (Bashmakov, 1996, p56). All countries have their ways of implementing these initiatives, and there is a lot of determination to see that everything will be successful. Many scholars desired to have a picture of the way the climate will be in the future with most of them having speculations of the forms of energy is clean, and also the climate change process is lower than they have been.
The efforts will, therefore, shape the future of climate and clean energy making everyone to adapt to the initiative that will be put in place. The future will have a climate characteristic that is not vulnerable to all the harmful activities that lead to depletion of resources. This means that there will be a reduced rate of sea-level encroachment and also the issues of food insecurity will be alleviated to a great extent. For instance, all the REDD initiatives will have a positive impact in shaping the future of climate and having efficient forms of energy (Bashmakov, 1996, p56). The initiates will lead to having a climate that can be able to support all the livelihoods, take care of all the different points of the eco-systems and also ensure that there is a reservation of the different parts of biodiversity. This means there will be more discussions conducted between REDD and all the initiatives that have been set aside to increase the number of research projects in that line.
UNFCCC Efforts Based on a "Bottom-up" Focus
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) is a treaty that was put in place in the year 1992. The body was formed to be able to take part in the stabilization of all the different types of greenhouse gases and to reduce the effects that the gases would pose on the future people's livelihoods. This was in the race to ensure that anthropogenic interference of the climate system was reduced and taken to sustainable levels. After the adoption of the treaty, it went ahead to ensure that there were no binding limits when it came to the use and emission of greenhouse gasses from the various counties that were a part of it. The treaty works alongside other treaties to make sure that the initiative is a success and that those who go against its provision are punished using the set standards.
UNFCCC has some efforts when it comes to implementing all the motives and intentions of REDD. The body had the determination of making sure that all the greenhouse gases were limited and replaced with gases that were clean and had no effect on biodiversity. Therefore in the race to make this possible, it was able to come up with Kyoto Protocol which was a body that was supposed to set targets on how the developing countries would be able to follow all the rules that are related to climate change.
UNFCCC also came up with Intended Nationally Determined Contributions body as a way of still meeting the objectives of the treaty. The body, in this case, was supposed to ensure that all the measures were put in place as a way of reducing emission and also doing away with events of deforestation were legit and acceptable by the law. This means that all countries were provided with the freedom to ensure that all the climate mitigation measures were appropriate from a national perspective. Also, they were supposed to be flexible and also adaptable after being tailored in all major sectors.
UNFCCC has been on the front line to make sure that all the matters regarding climate change are implemented in the best way possible without leaving aside any suggestions that seem to be factual and legit. In that case, the other efforts that it has made regarding climate change and having clean energy has been based on the creation of awareness. The awareness has been on making all the stakeholders and government institutions to realize that there is a problem that needs to be solved and if it gets out of hand, then the future will not be better for anyone (Bashmakov, 1996, p58). The awareness programs have been aired on televisions via different media houses, and there have been campaigns and days set aside to make everyone realize the benefits of mitigating climate change.
UNFCCC has also tried to make a mainstream of its objectives concerning all the national planning and development processes. All countries have the mission of developing and getting to a high status and industrialization is the order of the day and technology is the main driving force of the economy. As all these initiatives are being put in place, UNFCCC wants the officials and people responsible for implementing the ideas of having clean gases being emitted into the air at all times. The buildings...
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