The topic that discussed in the paper is parental verbal abuse and its effects on children personality and social behavior. Apparently, any type of abuse, whether physical, verbal or emotional results in the psychological damage of a childs persona. The psychological damage might have permanent effects that have a path into adulthood.
Many researchers have conducted their study on the effects of verbal abuse in a child. For instance, Battle, Shea, Johnson, Zlotnick, and Zanarini (2004) avow that childhood experiences may lead to the advancement of personality disorders (PD). Some examples of the personality disorders include obsessive-compulsive PD, avoidant PD, and Schizotypal PD. They specifically mention risk factors such as abuse, neglect, long separation, and early losses to be the probable cause of personality disorders. Apparently, adults who had a difficult time growing up tend to have problems such as major depressive disorders and emotional problems. Additionally, Shea, Johnson, Zlotnick, and Zanarini (2004) explain, Luntz and Widoms research on maltreatment revealed that adults who have anti-social PD had documented neglect and abuse during their childhood. More so, Ericsson, Verona, Joiner, and Preacher (2006) articulate that verbal abuse affects the development of a self-critical style. As well, authors affirm that childhood abuse results in the growth of a negative cognitive style. Matsudaira et al. (2016) assert that parenting styles affects the brain structure of children, which affects cognitive development. In turn, adverse cognitive styles result in depression, which may interfere with how children interact with their peers.
Furthermore, the principle and value associated with my topic is resilience. Individuals who experienced a tough time while growing up should try to overcome their emotional and psychological challenges. According to Goldstein and Brooks (2005), a child should have the ability to cultivate a resilient mind that will make them cope easily with stress, adapt to frustrations and trauma as well as develop realistic goals. More so, authors affirm that the model of resilience has a foundation on the concept of psychological wellness. They suggest further research on the clinical psychology of resilience to develop a positive social science.
Overall, in regards to the topic, some questions still remain unanswered. For example, how is it possible for a child who has a learning disability and has experienced hostile conditions to overcome their problems? Also, how might a child's genes an environment influence their personality? Broadly, researchers should conduct more studies on the relationship between parenting behavior and child development. .
Battle, C., Shea, T., Johnson, D.M., Zlotnick, C., and Zanarini, M.C. (2004). Childhood
maltreatment associated with adult personality disorders: findings from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study. Journal of Personality Disorders, 18(2), 193-211.
Ericsson, N.S., Verona, E., Joiner, T., and Preacher, K.J. (2006). Parental verbal abuse and the mediating role of self-criticism in adult internalizing disorders. Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 93, pp. 7178Goldstein, S., and Brooks, R.B. (2005). Handbook of Resilience in Children. New York: Springer.
Matsudaira et al. (2016). Parental Praise Correlates with Posterior Insular Cortex Gray Matter Volume in Children and Adolescents. PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/.
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