Some scholars believe that domestic violence can cause physical harm, in addition to affecting health throughout life. During pregnancy, violence is harmful to both the child and the mother. This is not uncommon for nurses who are responsible for providing postpartum and pregnancy care to see the victims performing their day-to-day activities. A woman is likely to feel more emotionally independent and physically vulnerable based on how her partner is treating her during the postnatal period. Because of this, domestic violence is more profound to certain women. Direct or indirect effects of violence can cause adverse pregnancy symptoms. This is the same case in the postnatal period.
According to Antoniou, Vivilaki, and Daglas (2008), sexual and physical violence on most pregnant women is an indicator of postpartum depression. Family relationships together with low self-esteem that women have been experiencing after incidents of domestic violence during pregnancy can increase the stress and percentage of depression among their family members. In other words, family relations play a role in how the progress of depression is influenced after a certain period. Women believe that mental stress is worse than physical beatings' effects. The effect of self-esteem can result in dependence upon the abusers.
Nevertheless, the victims are not willing to admit that they are being tortured by domestic violence, which is responsible for developing postpartum depression. Furthermore, based on the relationship between domestic violence's prevalence, physical morbidity, and obstetric complication during the postnatal period, some women are ever victims of domestic violence during pregnancy. Women who have suffered a lot from domestic violence prefer to be single, smokers, divorced and would not want to be pregnant again. After birth, it could be easier for them to develop postpartum depression.
Since the rate of postpartum depression has increased among women, especially during the postpartum period, it has become a substantial concern. According to Adamu and Adnew (2018), the dominant factor of this kind of depression is abuse. In spite of different definitions and methodology of violence, findings from various parts of the world show that there is a strong relationship between the postpartum depression's risk and violence. People with intimate partners who do abuse them during pregnancy cannot fail to show some aspects of postpartum depression mental health problems. Any woman who is screened positive for postpartum depression must have experienced domestic violence. In other words, domestic violence is associated with postpartum depression's symptoms. Therefore, counseling ought to be offered in the maternity for the sake of women who are suffering from mental disorders. There is a need for further study when it comes to identifying the relationship between depression and violence (Adamu and Adnew, 2018).
Several things have increased postpartum depression among women. Some women suffer from this kind of depression because they are not able to see the funny side of life. Some suffer because they have been blaming themselves unnecessarily while others are ever anxious for no reason. The fact that some women cannot cope up with certain things, it is possible that they will become depressed. Women can also suffer from this kind of depression when they have a sleeping problem most of their time. There is also a chance for those who have had thought of harming to suffer from postpartum depression (Adamu & Adinew, 2016).
When it comes to dealing or treating postpartum depression, several health providers know the postpartum depression's corollary risk factors. Some healthcare providers believe that the screening of this mental disorder to be a preventive approach. They believe that for a person to suffer from such mental disorder, there are chances that they have other things that are disturbing their lives that make them vulnerable. Therefore, there is a need for offering the right treatment for such a patient since it is not all about the mind but the entire body. Nevertheless, screening for this disorder is not common in most health system all over the world. In as much as the postpartum depression's prevalence during pregnancy is ever high, but its general screening remains low. This disorder is associated with different health issues, for instance, increased preterm delivery, maternal suicide, substance abuse, and low birth weight infants. Nevertheless, the screening for postpartum depression during and after pregnancy is infrequent, though this jeopardizes the mental and physical health of both the woman and the child (O'Reilly, Beale, & Gillies, 2010).
Furthermore, the aim of prevention measures for the postpartum depression is assessing women and children for the risks factors and interventions that can be put in place for the early stage of this disorder. The screening of this disorder ought to be included in the routine care because of its prevalence together with a serious health outcome. It is important that healthcare providers ought to use validated screening tools in prenatal health care centers. Also, after delivery, healthcare providers can consider using universal screening for postpartum depression.
Screening for postpartum depression is not a panacea. Nevertheless, it is a starting point for women who show that they need medical support. When it comes to highlighting the significance of engaging in postpartum depression screening, one of the results that most health care providers will give is that there is more domestic violence involved than how they anticipated. Thus, screening is one way of precluding the provision strategies that can be used mainly for prevention and protection of women against mental health problems, violence, and other dreadful situations.
It is also true that in some healthcare centers, healthcare providers do not screen for the postpartum depression. Nevertheless, most women are comfortable with them being screened. The screening also has several barriers. Some of these barriers include inadequate time to educate patients about depression, inadequate time to collect patient history as well as incomplete training on how postpartum depression can be diagnosed. Also, providers have been getting limited time in addition to having inexperience together with the uncertainty of what is expected of them when women disclose violence as the main reason for screening (Place, 2014).
As a clinician, it is important to ask women necessary questions related to abuse and postpartum depression during pregnancy as well as after delivery. Through this, documenting and offering care will be effective, especially for women who need to be secured. Moreover, clinicians ought to advocate for the healthcare policies meant for prioritizing the postpartum depression screening during the prenatal period. Women ought to be taught how they can effectively avoid being victims of such depression. These activities are the foundation for integrating mental and physical health to be more effective in prenatal care.
Over the years low birth weight has been a vast issue among expectant women, and article by Victor Preedy highlighted discreetly on how such a menace could be curbed be obliterating the undeserving repercussions in instances where the demise couldn't be evaded, and his findings formulated imperative details that would be of major assistance to pregnant women across the globe. Dalton Conley research depicted that the low birth weight issue bears two fallouts, the short-term and long-term. Low birth weighs consequences could trigger emanation of uncertainties that the kids subjected to such turmoil could encounter. Such kids could find it hard to perform better and attain justifying grades in class, hence decreasing the chances of them graduating from high school, and furthermore, their admission to special education could as well be attributed to low birth weight. Moreover, there are suggestive exhibits that detected the implication of the long-term consequences to the economy. The content outlined that, if the economy of the country rises with the increase in salaries to preferable significant figures as compared to the poverty data analysis, the undeserving consequences of low birth weight could be managed (Preedy, 2011).
The short and long-term repercussions of low birth weight bear two considerable entanglements. One indication depicts the inquiry of the present resources connected to low birth weight children that may be involved in the fallouts of hardship and low birth weight. Reason being, due to the increase in disability and impoverishment, low birth weight kids are the caliber of figures that would immensely be entitled to extensive assistance from the government. Another implication of the two type of low birth weight would be a case of education. Low birth weight could vastly subject those kids to repercussions that could last longer than anticipated. That type of consequence could affect them in their childhood period and the initial phase of their adulthood, hence converting into subordinates of 'biological and social risk' aspects, at a tender of their livelihood (Conley 2003).
In addition, low birth weight is a formidable anticipated reference for the unborn development paradigm. Kids who have been ingenerated with a low birth weight commence normal phase of life instantly, demerit and encounter impoverish states of surviving (Kiess 2009). It has delineated further that, of the present 4 million in approximated demise in the little one period, a suggestive level die about trivial magnitude, both unforeseen and "intrauterine growth retardation." In overall, this group involves those babies ingenerated fewer weeks than those required as part of the gestation period. The phrase LBW was formulated by the World Health Organization to indicate babies with weight below 2,500 grams when born and as a gauging prototype that would be used to compare the level of population. In high-end states, vast figures of LBW babies are unanticipated, while in states that yet to grow economically like South Asia, some of the LBW ingenerated are mature babies who match up for gestational age. These are babies whose magnitude is less than the 10 percent. Contrarily, some medical specialists interpret those babies if their birth magnitude is less than the three percent.
In other findings by Berthold Koletzko, it has been depicted that low birth weight was connected to the rise in a deficiency of glucose and caliber two diabetes. Furthermore, low birth weight can as well be attributed to the decrease in resistance power of the insulin syndrome. This research has been exhibited by diverse generations across the globe. Moreover, it had been familiarizing for several years that deficient of protein in the diet of human beings and animals could lead to a permanent lack of glucose and low insulation level in the body. In a more elaborated circumstance was experimented on an expectant rat dam, it was realized that "the cell growth, replication, insulin secretion and glucose tolerance of offspring of such pregnancies - particularly if the protein deficient was also fed to the offspring for a while after weaning-were considerably impaired." This prototype was later on benchmarked to interpret on the device of the factors prioritized in the frugal phenotype hypothesis. In that same aspect of the experiment, more expectant and breastfeeding rats have been researched on by being dished 8% protein caliber of regimen and contemplated their young ones to those dished 20% regimens rich in proteins (Koletzko, 2000).
Informatively, in other research details it was affirmed that the physical repercussions of giving birth at a...
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