Physical Education Paper Sample: Effects of Body Mass and Height on a Volleyball Athlete

Date:  2021-04-01 06:48:06
7 pages  (1898 words)
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University of California, Santa Barbara
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Course work
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Volleyball can be defined as an open skill sport that entails an absolute anaerobic lactic acid power. The profile of volleyball players (kin anthropogenic) involves a great height, muscle power; a high jumping ability, coordination, and velocity are all important characteristics of a volleyball player since it is a game that is characterized by use strength and elevation for blocking, the great strength and speed is essential for spiking, resisting to play the sets and great technical ability. On higher skilled levels of play, the performance of a player is determined by vertical jumping and speed. Some of the physical capacities that assist in determining a players best performance include dangerous- dynamic muscle activity, the ability to jump and faster speed in executing more rapid movements that may be multidirectional.( Calbet, J A. L, Herrera P. Diaz, and L P. Rodriguez,31)

There are, however, notable differences between the old and new systems that affect performance patterns. In the new systems there exist substantial differences in the low number and short duration of high active phases in the games that are played according to new rules and increased passive stages. In almost fifty percent of the actions, are comprise of three touches within a minimum time of five minutes. On the other hand, however, the percentage of plays made on the ball that conclude with a single hit is high and lasts a minimum time of fewer than two seconds. That is approximate of twenty percentage of the total number of actions made. This is important as it marks a shift in the proportion of fast actions as a result of the introduction of RPS that augments anaerobic-a lactic acid energy consumption. As a consequence of the new rules and regulations of the game, and the dimensions of court together with the height of the net, volleyball player requirements are determined.( Calbet, J A. L, Herrera P. Diaz, and L P. Rodriguez,34) Efficient and efficient movement is an important aspect when it comes to performance in any sport. Actions are important in binding together all the skills of a game so that there is a consistent flow in the sport. Specific training in any game and sport induce peculiar aeromechanical adaptations that in most cases are considered to be signs of acquiring or improving the specific skills and movements. The anthropometric and physical trait of an athlete presents necessary prerequisites so that there is successful participation in the given sport.

Sports scientist and coaches take a lot of interest in identifying specific traits or characteristics of physique that contribute highly to the success in sports. They also take note of the possible structural differences that exist among the athletes in different forms of games. For example, in sports such as volleyball, a player's tall body stature is critical and highly accepted for it is known that the height influences the overall body positively and the entire body segment lengths and hence a good athletic performance. Coaches and sports scientists, however, do not look at body size and shape as the only vital elements that are the most important for an athlete to perform well and excel in the sport. However, they are factors that offer crucial prerequisites for success while participating in the game. ( Alfredson, H, P Nordstrom, and R Lorentzon,87)

Height is however considered an important determinant aspect for performing well in a volleyball match. Together with body mass, height is used as a criterion for selecting promising volleyball players. For this reason, professional volleyball players are expected to contain these anthropogenic traits that come along with other physical characteristics and prowess that are required for excellent performance in volleyball. The reason why anthropogenic factors are important in physical abilities is because; when technical skills and psychophysical computerized skills tests are carried out in female players of say 13-16 years of age, the body build determines a percentage of between 42-89% of the outcomes in the results of physical capability tests, Up to 32% of technical tests and a 43% of psychophysiological tests. These findings show that the results may have an advantage in during a volleyball match for the participants or players who have a lean physique.

In determining the impact of such anthropometric traits which are the ( height and Body Mass or weight) in a performance of volleyball players that range from the change of direction speed, coordination, and speed as well as the explosive power, one may decide to carry out an experiment involving players. For example, when 21 volleyball players are chosen with an age difference of say, 19.85+/- years, with a height of 181.67+/-12.03 centimeters; and a weight of say, 72.62+/-12.99kg; including a training experience of about 6.76+/-2.21 years. The players should then be made familiar with all the procedures to take place so as to gain their consent.

Just like in the standard testing and exercising protocol, the players should complete their practice and warm ups before the tests are carried out. The warm up should take up to 10 minutes of activity, then ten more minutes of vigorous activity that increases in intensity and speed and later three to five minutes of total rest without any stretching. The players should perform three trials of each motor test. As this is done, the body weight and body height should be recorded in each single test. The best of the three tests is then kept to make an analysis. In such an experiment the variables should contain a sample of measuring instruments that consist of body height and body weight. It should also have nine variables that are as follows, spike jump characterized by three steps approach, block jump, standing jump, jelka jump, T-test,93639m test, arm-plate taping,20m dash and an obstacle course backward. The body mass index should also be calculated.

In carrying out such a study, it should be assumed that the intensity of plyometric exercises determines the effectiveness and safety of performance of players to a greater extent. It should also be assumed that while training where drop jumps is applied, intensity can be defined by use of such parameters like ground reaction forces and the rate at which the development in effect. An observation should be made that a change in drop height is a more efficient method when determining the intensity in drop jumps than a change in body mass or weight. An increase in drop height from 0.2 m to between 0.4 m and 0.6 m leads to increased ground reaction forces both at the first maximum trial (that is; the contact of toes with the ground; and the second peak ( which is the connection made between the heels and the ground). (Alfredson, H, P Nordstrom, and R Lorentzon, 108)

However, the issue of the effect of the drop in height on ground reaction forces in drop jumps has seen various responses and views number of authors. The authors have therefore raised different issues about it. The majority argued that ground reaction forces values increases together with an increase in drop height irrespective of gender, age and training experience. According to a research conducted by Caster showed that ground reaction forces maximum increases in drop jump from 0.15, 0.3, 0.45 and 0.6 m; an investigation was done by McKay et al. [20] shows that the heights 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 m also apply. On the other hand, ( Seegmiller and McCaw 28) found that an increase in ground reaction forces2 occurs if 0.3 m jumps are followed by 0.6 and then 0.9 m increases. For this reason, therefore, an assumption can be made that drop in height is a parameter that determines ground reaction force to a larger extent, and that it can help in controlling drop jump intensity. However, increase in drop height is only reasonable until a certain height is attained, after which it becomes ineffective or even hazardous. According to (Bobbert et al. 2,), the occurrence of a sharp ground reaction forces2 peak shows that the players hit the ground hard with their heels; this means that they are not able to withstand overloads. Prolonged duration of the eccentric phase, which brings about a decrease in ground reaction forces, can be another sign of excessive overloading.

Drop height changes in drop jumps make it possible to manipulate the intensity of this group of exercises, while body mass changes do not. Both groups of parameters (E-RFD and GRF) measured during the contact of the toes and then the heels with the ground ought to be applied to determine exercise intensity. Further research is needed to systemize plyometric exercises according to their intensity. Moreover, the problem of determining relations of strength parameters measured in the eccentric and concentric phase ought to be dealt with. If these theoretical and practical problems can be solved, it will be possible to optimize previous programmers of plyometric training. (Alfredson, H, P Nordstrom, and R Lorentzon,125)

Results obtained in such studies show that the system of predicting variables that are Body height and body weight produces an extraordinary impact on motor ability of players in a volleyball game and therefore suggest a longitudinal skeleton dimensionality, coordinating the agility and explosive strength of the vertical jump type to obtain the greatest positive impact on volleyball performance. Longitudinal skeleton dimensionality makes it possible for ball contacts at a greater height above the net, which is of great importance when spiking and blocking.

However, as a result of the complexity of these elements, there is the need for more time required so as to master the technique and to apply it in game competitions. Due to these reasons, longitudinal skeleton dimension does not entail any significant competition advantage in the players aged 12-13. More so, in very tall players it may even cause effects that are not favorable in motor abilities and situation performance due to the accelerated growth and development. It is of paramount importance that the coaches are aware of it and to provide adequate opportunities to the very tall players to play, even at the cost of less successful competition results. It is equally important to total attention to such players in training and practice sessions. When the longitudinal bone growth has reached its maximum, the longitudinal skeleton dimension becomes integrated into the players situation-motor complex. (Calbet, J A. L, Herrera P. Diaz, and L P. Rodriguez, 79)

Elite volleyball players produce greater vertical jump scores than non-elite and developing. Most volleyball coaches should consider vertical jumping ability as the most fundamental physical attribute for volleyball players. For this reason, a lot of emphases is made on the focus of methods that increase vertical jump as well as physical factors that enhance vertical jumping ability specific to volleyball athletes. Capacity to make high jump heights, force power and velocity in jump training to follow the principles of good-quality training, in which training variables are manipulated to promote optimal, chronic improvements in performance. (Calbet, J A. L, Herrera P. Diaz, and L P. Rodriguez, 97)

In summary, the body mass and height have a significant influence and impact on volleyball players. A colossal player cannot make high and quick jumps as is expected in a volleyball game. The same situation exists with short players. For a short player to make an exceptional performance in a volleyball match, he or she must pose a high jumping capability so as to cover the gap the exists due to his or her short height.

Work cited

Alfredson, H, P Nordstrom, and R Lorentzon. "Bone Mass in Female Volleyball...

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