For the Muslims, history is regarded as a chain of incidents informing the time and values of Islams. It strictly focuses on realizing the ideologies that boost both uniqueness as well as the changes in the primary virtues (Ead, 2014). The involvement of Islamic to Science is a memorable saga that marked sightings in both pure, applied science as well as technological advancements (Iqbal, 2009). However, the main periods that captured the growth and expansion of the Islamic Science were between the 8th and the 9th century, and these were the ages of age transformation (Masood, 2009). There were drastic changes in medicine, Geography that contributed to significant changes in Science. The paper will, however, focus on the status of Islamic Science during the 9th century and then the contributors to the Islamic Science and the Arabic language.
The 9th century presented the Scientific result by the use of letter as the interpolations, and the comment was translated directly to the Islamic books (Masood, 2009). During the 9th century, there was also Al-Razi who was a Physician, Chemist an as well as a teacher. He managed to complete several essential works about medicine that were later translated to Latin and Greek. One of the origins of Islamic Science was the thinking and influences of such intellectuals who acted as a cradle of motivation during the time (Masood, 2009). There was also Gurgan who was a Mathematician and an astronomer who completed a treatise about geometrical problems as well as another drawing about meridian (Masood, 2009). The knowledge that thee intellectual wrote mainly contributed to the transformation of Islamic Science, and from the 9th century, Islamic Science started to experience drastic changes (Iqbal, 2009).
There was also the works of Doraid Al-Azdi who flourished the 9th century, and it is through his works that we were able to learn about whether descriptions. During the century, he completed several works that encourage the meteorological study. Al-Razi completed a medical encyclopedia that has been used for so many years (Sardar, 1989). The presence of the medical encyclopedias also resulted to a system of pharmacies among the Muslim cities and hospital that served the patients around the clock (Masood, 2009). The intellectuals also prompted the Science teaching that sparked the willingness of Science Scholarship, which led to an increased number of students taking Science related courses which led to the popularity of Islamic Science.
It is further discussed that during this period, the Muslim Scholars acquired Greek expositions that helped them establish their study into Arabic and they evaluated, assembles and approved the Greek Science (Saliba, 2007). It is at this point that they were able to discover the significant Islamic Scientists who have left hundreds and thousands of their books., and this is how they discovered the existence of these Science (Ead, 2014). The Scholars came introduced Scientific related ideas that were later adopted in the preceding centuries between 10th and the 17th centuries before Islamic science encountered a decline.
Islamic Scholars Contributions
He was the first great Islamic Mathematical who implemented and designed Algebra (Masood, 2009). In Latin, Al-Khwarizmi works applied the Arabic numerals as well as the mathematics of Europe and Spain. He was also the mind behind the development of cosine, sine, and tables that were later translated to the West (Ead, 2014). He later wrote the book Hisab al- Jabar Waal-Muqabalah (Masood, 2009). In the book, he composed equations by putting the knowns on one side and the unknowns on the other side. As a result, he contributed significantly to the Arabic language where Al-Khwarizmi helped in announcing the Arabic numerals, the positions of the decimal points as well as the concepts of zero (Sardar, 1989). This is the reason it was explained that both Algebra and Algorithm are the corruptions of his name. He also helped in the numerical spread of Arabic language that helped in the definition of multiple terms in Arabic (Masood, 2009). Al-Khwarizmi mathematical knowledge positively played a central role in Islamic Science in that it resulted in the emergence of important concepts that are still used in the current world (Masood, 2009). It is also evident that he is one of the oldest authors in Arabic arithmetic, which plays a critical role in the spread of Arabic. It is also stated that in Science, there are works that were translated into Latin and had been used since the 16th century (Saliba, 2007). The different concepts of Algebra have been used in solving different aspects related to Science.
Ibn al-Haytham is known to have interpreted his work to Latin. In Science, Ibn al-Haytham made significant contributions to the fields such as mathematics, astronomy, and physics (Sardar, 1989). His commitment to helping geometry and the theory number, Ibn al-Haytham managed on operating the analytical greenery in the analysis between algebra and Newton calculus. Calculus expanded, and it was primarily applied within the Islamic Science (Ead, 2014). The intellectual scholars during this time they did not apply their logic during the development of mathematics but they also contributed to mathematical modeling (Ead, 2014).
Ibn Sina al-Razi
Medicine is an integral part of the society, and they are the exploration and the innovations that were attained during the golden age that has contributed to the current changes at large (Masood, 2009). In Science, Al Razi was one of the greatest medical experts who existed during the period. For instance, he was an individual behind the discovery of chicken pox. In his book, he discussed the disease intensely, and this knowledge has enabled the medical officers to focus and expound more on the disease so that they can find the deeper meaning of chicken pox (Sardar, 1989). Abu Ali Ibn is recognized as Avicenna, and another offering in pharmacology was hygiene, and in this case, he ensured that the Islamic world possessed standard hospital that provided the required services to the society. Other significant influences included the developments like the acknowledgments about the nature of tuberculosis and phthisis as well as waterborne diseases (Saliba, 2007). With his inventions, he motivated the scholars during this time to go into the more in-depth research in ensuring that all the missing information about the diseases was uncovered. His contributions to Islamic Science were through medicine where he provided the scientists with the topic to study. However, when it comes to aerobics, Ibn Sina al-Razi did not play significantly to ensure that there were changes (Ead, 2014).
Abul Qasim al- Zahrawi
Abul Qasim al- Zahrawi played a significant role in the development of Science (Ead, 2014). During this time, he was a great surgeon, and as a result, he had many students who flocked from the Muslim World and the United Kingdom to learn from him. Based on this information, we can say that he contributed to the development of Science by passing on the knowledge that he had on the students who were ready and willing to learn (Sardar, 1989). Through this, he was able to motivate many in the Science world, and this is the reason many students went ahead to pursue the subject. Abul Qasim al- Zahrawi was also responsible for completing a medical encyclopedia that has 30 different segments that cover the facts about surgical tools with more than 200 drawn tools. This is one of the books that have been used over the years as a guide in surgery (Saliba, 2007). Abul Qasim al- Zahrawi contributed positively to the development of Science through his knowledge of writing the encyclopedia. The fact is that not everyone could meet Abul Qasim al- Zahrawi (Iqbal, 2009).
Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi
Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariya al- Razi was also one of the greatest Muslim doctors and also the only one to Ibn Sina (Saliba, 2007). Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariya al- Razi is known to have written more than 200 books with one known as Kitab al-Mansuri (Saliba, 2007). In the books, he included both the Greek and the Arab sources making it diversified to all the readers. In the process, Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariya al- Razi was able to help in the development of Arabic as the students from different parts of the world had a chance to access the book. In Science, he completed books about Medicine and Statistics, and this is the subject that was used in different Scientific disciplined (Masood, 2009). Through this, he was able to pass and share information with the Scientists, students. In his books, he classifies animals, minerals, chemicals souls and spirits and this has been a Scientific Science over the years (Saliba, 2007).
The Islamic Science took a different move after the 9th century which was regarded as a transformation period. During this time, several factors contributed to the growth of Islamic Science, and these were mainly the existence of scholars and the students willing to learn. The intellectual knowledge of these people contributed mainly to the sharing of knowledge through writings as well as their workers. These intellectuals also played an integral role in the development of both Islamic Science and Arabic that was attained through their writings. The contributors also contributed to the successes of Islamic Science that marked remarkable changes over the years. The Muslim Scholars did not only conserve the ancient knowledge, but they also concentrated on transforming the knowledge into new ideas that improved both Science and Technology. They also provided a significant connection between the Arab and the other regions such as the Middle East, Europe, and others.
Ead, H. A. (2014). History of Islamic Science. New York: Sarton.
Iqbal, M. (2009). The Making of Islamic Science. London: Other Press.
Masood, E. (2009). Islamic Science & History. New York: Icon Books.
Saliba, G. (2007). Islamic Science and the Making of the European Renaissance. New York: MIT.
Sardar, Z. (1989). Explorations in Islamic Science. Michigan: Michigan.
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