Paper Example on Group Dynamics & Interpersonal Relations: An OD Approach

Paper Type:  Essay
Pages:  6
Wordcount:  1485 Words
Date:  2023-04-09

Chapter 10

Chapter 10 discusses the changes in programs associated with group dynamics and interpersonal relations. The interpersonal and group process approaches goals are to assist members of a group to interact and create effective ways of working with others (Cummings & Worley 2014, p. 265). They are first interventions created for organizational development (OD), that are popular are applicable in different settings across the world. The objective of the chapter is to help learners to know the diagnostic issues associated with group dynamics and interpersonal relations. It also aims at illustrating the critical principles in process consultation intervention (Cummings & Worley 2014, p. 256).

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Process consultation (PC) refers to a framework used to support relationships. PC is defined as the establishment of a relationship that allows the client to see, understand, and take action on events that occur in his external and internal environment to enhance the condition experienced by the client. The PC does not offer concrete solutions to the problem faced by the company. Instead, PC help employees, managers, and other members of the organization to improve their human processes such as decision making, communication, task performance, and interpersonal relations(Cummings & Worley 2014, p. 267). In PC, active managers and consultants are those who are useful in aiding and helping others get things done in achieving their goals. As a result, PC is a technique as well as a philosophy for improving relationships.

There are several principles used to guide process consultation. These principles are (1) continuously try to be supportive, (2) be aware of reality, (3) Understand personal ignorance, (4) go with the flow, and (time is crucial. Other principles include (6) everything done is an intervention, (7) where there is doubt, share the problem. Besides, everything is information (Cummings & Worley 2014, p. 268).

There are two main methods of conducting PC to make groups and individuals more productive. These methods are group interventions and individual interventions. Individual interventions are meant to assist people in being more productive while communicating with others (Cummings & Worley 2014, p. 269). For instance, a consultant may give feed to individuals on how their behaviors are affecting communication. Such feedback helps individuals regulate their behaviors in a meeting. Johari window is a model used to identify personal issues that affect relationships. In the model, there are four types of personal issues affecting relationships. These categories of problems are (1) Open Window - personal issues known to the affected individual and other people. (2) Hidden Window - personal matters are known to the affected individual alone. (3) Blind window - issues are known to other people, yet the affected individual does not know (Cummings & Worley 2014, p. 269). (4) Unknown Window - issues affecting the relationship that are unknown to both the affected individual and others.

The individual interventions are taken in PC assist others to be more open in disclosing their views, emotions, concerns, and opinions, thus minimizing the size of the hidden window. Besides, it individual gives feedback to other individuals, thus reducing blind windows. Reducing the size of these windows assist in communication, thus improving relationships between individuals.

Group interventions, on the other hand, aims at improving the content, process, and structure of a group. The intervention process includes using observation, comments, and questions to understand relationships that exist among the members of a group, decision making, and problem consultants. For instance, a consultant may propose that members take time to understand how decisions are made and assess the feelings of members concerning decisions made (Cummings & Worley 2014, p. 270). The role of the consultant in group intervention is to help the group diagnose the issues affecting the relationship in the group.

Although PC is a critical tool in organization development, there are many problems evident in measuring performance-one challenge in that most PC on groups that perform mental tasks. The outcomes of such groups are relatively difficult to evaluate (Cummings & Worley 2014, p. 273). The second problem is that the PC is done in isolation, but it is combined with other interventions in organization development programs. It is thus difficult to isolate the impact of PC in OD.

From the above discussion, it is evident that it evident that organization development is greatly affected by interpersonal relations and group dynamics. One method of intervention to issues affecting organizations that arise from relationships is process consultation. Whenever intervention is targeting one or a few people, individual intervention is used to improve the relations between them and the entire organization. On the other hand, when the intervention is targeting a group, then group intervention is used to help members achieve their goals.

Chapter 11: Organization Process Approaches

Chapter 11 discusses various interventions aimed at improving the efficiency of the organization in visioning and strategy making, problem-solving, and collaboration for critical components of the organization or the entire firm. The earliest intervention created to deals with such matters was the organization confrontation meetings. Other interventions include intergroup relations and large group intervention. Each of these types of intervention has different application stages.

Organization confrontation meeting aims mobilizing available resources in the company to be used in identifying problems, making targets, setting priorities, and starting the process of solving the identified problem. The meeting helped to put together a problem-solving resource of the entire organization of the subsystem by encouraging participants to recognize and respond to critical issues (Cummings & Worley 2014, p. 297). This motivation is suitable in situations when the company is under stress and when there is a big gap between the top management and the junior members. The process of dragonizing the problem facing using this method follows the following steps: 1) organize a group meeting for people involved. (2) Appointment of groups whose members are selected from all departments in the organization. (3) Promote openness, honesty, and teamwork in the identification of the problem. (4) The participants groups are allowed to discuss for few hours to find the problem facing the organization and reconvene in a central meeting place after discussion. (5) At this point, all groups create a list of all issues identified and categorized. (6) All participants are then subdivided into small problem-solving groups. (7) Each group categorizes the problems by ranking them, create a tactical plan, and formulate a timetable for accomplishing the tasks. These groups then periodically report to the management about their progress (Cummings & Worley 2014, p. 299). (8) Establishment of follow up meeting.

Intergroup relations interventions aim at helping two or more groups to solve their dysfunctional relationships. It helps to improve the process among intergroup, thus promoting effectiveness in the organization. Intergroup relations intervention is divided into two: microcosm groups and intergroup conflict resolutions. Each of these groups has its application stages.

A microcosm group comprises of few people select to represent and reflect the issue being addressed. The process of using this type of intervention has five application stages. (1) Identification of the problem. (2) Summon the group. (3) Facilitate group training. (4) Address the problem (Cummings & Worley 2014, p. 303). (5) Disband the group. Resolving intergroup conflict is designed to solve the difference between two departments and groups within the organization. Its application stages have ten steps. These steps are (1) signing of an agreement among the affect groups agreeing to work together to improve their intergroup relationships. (2) Set time when the two groups will meet. (3) The managers and the consultants describe the objective and purpose of the meeting. (4) Each group is assigned a different location and asked to write a question about their groups. (5) The two groups convene after completing their lists. (6) After reading the content of the established list in the previous stage, they separate again. (7) The groups review and analyze the reasons for the discrepancies. (8) The groups meet again to share the reason for the difference and identify problems to those discrepancies. (9) The groups are instructed to create specific strategies for resolving the problem at hand (Cummings & Worley 2014, p. 305). (10) Conducting follow up meetings to identify the progress.

The large group intervention deals with issues that affect the entire organization. These issues include responding to changes in the environment, developing new products, introducing new technology, or redesigning the organization (Cummings & Worley 2014, p. 309). The application stages for large group intervention is relatively complex than in the previous techniques. The first stage is making necessary preparation for the meeting. Preparation for the meeting involves composing a convincing theme for the meeting, choosing suitable participants, creation appropriate responsibilities to address the theme of the meeting, and designing of post-meeting follow-through. The second stage is conducting the conference. There are three methods of holding the conference, namely positive, open-system, and open-space methods (Cummings & Worley 2014, p. 318). Each of the three methods has its application stages. The follow-up of the meeting is then conducted.

From the above discussion, it is evident that there many interventions for enhancing the efficiency of the company. The most common intervention are organization confrontation meetings, intergroup relations, and large group intervention. Each of these interventions has different application stages used to solve the problems facing the organization.


Cummings, T. G., & Worley, C. G. (2014). Organization development and change. Cengage learning.

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